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A TIME'S MEMORY - Flu, Bugs & Other Accidents Blog - Year: XIII - Here, Reader, you will find many items if your interests are in the field of emerging threats to global or public health, with a perspective that is not mainstream. Thank to You for the interest!

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6 Jun 2018

#Avian #Influenza #H5N8 – #Global situation #update, as of 06 June 2018 (#FAO, June 6 ‘18)

          

Title:

#Avian #Influenza #H5N8 – #Global situation #update, as of 06 June 2018.

Subject:

Avian Influenza, H5N8 subtypes, global poultry panzootic, current situation.

Source:

Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), full page: (LINK).

Code:

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Avian Influenza H5N8 – Global situation update, as of 06 June 2018

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The next update will be issued on 04 July 2018.


Disclaimer

Information provided herein is current as of the date of issue. Information added or changed since the last H5N8 situation update appears in red. Human cases are depicted in the geographic location of their report. For some cases, exposure may have occurred in one geographic location but reported in another. For cases with unknown onset date, reporting date was used instead. FAO compiles information drawn from multiple national (Ministries of Agriculture or Livestock, Ministries of Health, Provincial Government websites; Centers for Disease Prevention and Control [CDC]) and international sources (World Health Organization [WHO], World Organisation for Animal Health [OIE]) as well as peer-reviewed scientific articles. FAO makes every effort to ensure, but does not guarantee, accuracy, completeness or authenticity of the information. The designation employed and the presentation of material on the map do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of FAO concerning the legal or constitutional status of any country, territory or sea area, or concerning the delimitation of frontiers.


Overview

  • Situation:
    • H5N8 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) 2016 virus in Africa, Asia, Europe and Middle East with pandemic potential.
  • Confirmed countriesx:
    1. Austria*,
    2. Belgium*,
    3. Bosnia and Herzegovina*,
    4. Bulgaria*,
    5. Cameroon*,
    6. China,
    7. Croatia*,
    8. Cyprus,
    9. the Czech Republic*,
    10. Democratic Republic of the Congo*,
    11. Denmark*,
    12. Egypt*,
    13. Finland,
    14. The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia*,
    15. France*,
    16. Germany*,
    17. Greece*,
    18. Hungary*,
    19. India*,
    20. Iran (Islamic Republic of)*,
    21. Iraq*,
    22. Ireland,
    23. Israel*,
    24. Italy*,
    25. Kazakhstan,
    26. the Republic of Korea*,
    27. Kuwait*,
    28. Lithuania,
    29. Luxembourg*,
    30. Nepal*,
    31. the Netherlands*,
    32. Niger*,
    33. Nigeria*,
    34. Pakistan,
    35. Poland*,
    36. Portugal,
    37. Romania*,
    38. Russian Federation*,
    39. Saudi Arabia*,
    40. Serbia*,
    41. Slovakia*,
    42. Slovenia,
    43. South Africa*,
    44. Spain*,
    45. Sweden*,
    46. Switzerland,
    47. Tunisia,
    48. the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland*,
    49. Uganda*,
    50. Ukraine* and
    51. Zimbabwe*.
  • Number of human cases:
    • None reported to date.

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{x} Reports of H5N8 HPAI events in Taiwan, Province of China, are not included inthis update since the virus belongs to a genetically different strain.

{*} Countries in which the virus was detected in poultry.


Map 1. H5N8 HPAI events officially reported in Asia, Europe and Africa by onset date

H5N8 HPAI events officially reported in Asia, Europe and Africa by onset date

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|-- Click to enlarge –|

Note: The large map shows confirmed H5N8 HPAI events observed since 01 October 2017; the small map in the insert shows confirmed events observed between 01 June 2016 and 30 September 2017

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Map 2. Global context: H5Nx HPAI events officially reported between 01 October 2017 and 06 June 2018

H5N8 HPAI events officially reported in Asia, Europe and Africa by onset date

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|-- Click to enlarge –|

For a list of bird species affected by H5N8 HPAI see Update 03/05/2018


FAO's support to countries

Global level

  • Report of the WHO Vaccine Composition Meeting February 2018 [link] and September 2017 [link]
  • A webinar titled Intercontinental spread of H5N8 highly pathogenic avian influenza – Analysis of the current situation and recommendations for preventive action, targeting national veterinary services and FAO regional and country teams, was conducted by FAO on 24 November 2016 [link]
  • EMPRES Watch, September 2016: H5N8 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) of clade 2.3.4.4 detected through surveillance of wild migratory birds in the Tyva Republic, the Russian Federation – potential for international spread [link]
  • EMPRES news, 4 November 2016: H5N8 highly pathogenic avian influenza detected in Hungary and in the Republic of India H5N8 highly pathogenic avian influenza detected in Hungary and in the Republic of India [link]

Regional level

  • FAO Regional Office for Europe and Central Asia news, November 2016: Highly pathogenic avian influenza spreading in Europe, South Asia [link]
  • FAO Regional Office for Europe and Central Asia news, September 2016: Emergent Avian Influenza virus detected in surveillance of migratory birds in Russian Federation (FAO Regional Office for Europe and Central Asia news [link]


Recent Publications

  1. Scott, A. B., Toribio, J.-A. L. M. L., Singh, M., Groves, P., Barnes, B., Glass, K., […], & Hernandez-Jover, M. 2018. Low- and High-Pathogenic Avian Influenza H5 and H7 Spread Risk Assessment Within and Between Australian Commercial Chicken Farms. Frontiers in Veterinary Science, 5, 63. http://doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2018.00063. [reference].
    • This study quantified and compared the probability of avian influenza spread within and between Australian commercial chicken farms via specified spread pathways using scenario tree mathematical modeling. Outputs indicate that the probability of no establishment of infection in a shed is the most likely end-point after exposure and infection of low-pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) in one chicken for all farm types.
  2. Voronina, O.L., Ryzhova, N.N., Aksenova, E.I., Kunda, M.S., Sharapova, N.E., Fedyakina, I.T., […], & Gintsburg, A.L. Genetic features of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses A(H5N8), isolated from the European part of the Russian Federation. Infection, Genetics and Evolution, 2018;pii: S1567- 1348(18)30312-5. doi: 10.1016/j.meegid.2018.05.022. [reference].
    • The present study aimed to perform a comparative analysis of new HPAIV A(H5N8) strains isolated in the Russian Federation. Phylogenetic analysis revealed four genetically distinct subgroups in HPAIV A(H5N8) from the 2016-2017 season.
  3. Kwon, J.H., Lee, D.H., Swayne, D.E., Noh, J.Y., Yuk, S.S., Jeong, S., […], Song, C.S. Experimental infection of H5N1 and H5N8 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses in Northern Pintail (Anas acuta). Transboundary Emerging Diseases. doi: 10.1111/tbed.12872. [reference].
    • In this study, the authors evaluated the pathogenicity, infectivity and transmissibility of an H5N8 HPAI clade 2.3.4.4A virus in Northern Pintails and compared the results to that of an H5N1 HPAI clade 2.3.2.1 virus. The H5N8‐infected birds shed high virus titres from oropharynx and cloaca, which in the field supported virus transmission and spread.
  4. Venkatesh D, Poen MJ, Bestebroer TM, Scheuer RD, Vuong O, Chkhaidze M, Machablishvili A, Mamuchadze J, Ninua L, Fedorova NB, Halpin RA, Lin X, Ransier A, Stockwell TB, Wentworth DE, Kriti D, Dutta J, van Bakel H, Puranik A, Slomka MJ, Essen S, Brown IH, Fouchier RAM, Lewis NS. Avian influenza viruses in wild birds: virus evolution in a multi-host ecosystem. J Virol. 2018 May 16. pii: JVI.00433-18. doi: 10.1128/JVI.00433-18. [reference].
    • In this study the authors collected AIV samples from various duck and gull species that breed, migrate and overwinter in Georgia, for six consecutive years (2010-2016). They found substantial subtype diversity of viruses that varied in prevalence from year to year, including H5N5 and H5N8 HPAIVs belonging to clade 2.3.4.4.


Recommendations for affected countries and those at risk

Please refer to the Update published on 11 October 2017 for a list of recommendations.

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Keywords: FAO; Updates; Worldwide; Avian Influenza; H5N8; Poultry; Wild Birds.

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