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A Highly Pathogenic #Avian #H7N9 #Influenza Virus Isolated from A #Human Is Lethal in Some #Ferrets Infected via #Respiratory #Droplets (Cell Host Microbe, abstract)

Title : A Highly Pathogenic #Avian #H7N9 #Influenza Virus Isolated from A #Human Is Lethal in Some #Ferrets Infected via #Respiratory #Drop...

20 Sep 2017

#Avian #Influenza #H7N9 – Situation #update as of 20 September 2017 (#FAO, edited)


Title: #Avian #Influenza #H7N9 – Situation #update as of 20 September 2017.

Subject: Avian Influenza, H7N9 subtype, poultry enzootic and human cases in China.

Source: Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), full page: (LINK).

Code: [     ][     ]

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Avian Influenza H7N9 – Situation update as of 20 September 2017

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The next update will be issued on 25 October 2017


Disclaimer

Information provided herein is current as of the date of issue. Information added or changed since the last H7N9 situation update appears in red. Human cases are depicted in the geographic location of their report. For some cases, exposure may have occurred in one geographic location but reported in another. For cases with unknown onset date, reporting date was used instead. FAO compiles information drawn from multiple national (Ministries of Agriculture or Livestock, Ministries of Health, Provincial Government websites; Centers for Disease Prevention and Control [CDC]) and international sources (World Health Organization [WHO], World Organisation for Animal Health [OIE]) as well as peer-reviewed scientific articles. FAO makes every effort to ensure, but does not guarantee, accuracy, completeness or authenticity of the information. The designation employed and the presentation of material on the map do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of FAO concerning the legal or constitutional status of any country, territory or sea area, or concerning the delimitation of frontiers.


Overview

  • Situation:
    • Influenza A(H7N9) virus with pandemic potential.
  • Country:
    • China; three human cases originated in China and were reported in Malaysia (1) and Canada (2).
  • Number of human cases:
    • 1589 confirmed;
    • 616 deaths (since February 2013).
  • Number of new findings in birds or the environment since last update (23 August 2017):
    • 4
  • Number of new human cases since last update (23 August 2017):
    • 5
  • Provinces/municipalities:
    • [China]
      • Beijing,
      • Chongqing,
      • Shanghai and
      • Tianjin Municipalities;
      • Anhui,
      • Fujian,
      • Gansu,
      • Guangdong,
      • Guizhou,
      • Hebei,
      • Heilongjiang,
      • Henan,
      • Hubei,
      • Hunan,
      • Jiangsu,
      • Jiangxi,
      • Jilin,
      • Liaoning,
      • Qinghai,
      • Shaanxi,
      • Shanxi,
      • Shandong,
      • Sichuan,
      • Taiwan,
      • Yunnan and
      • Zhejiang Provinces;
      • Hong Kong SAR,
      • Macao SAR;
      • Guangxi,
      • Inner Mongolia,
      • Ningxia Hui,
      • Tibet and
      • Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Regions;
    • [Malaysia]
      • Sabah;
    • [Canada]
      • British Columbia.
  • Animal/environmental findings:
    • around 3000 virological samples from the environment, chickens, pigeons, ducks and a tree sparrow tested positive; positives mainly from live bird markets, vendors and some commercial or breeding farms.
  • Highly pathogenic virus findings:
    • The H7N9 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus was detected in a total of 49 poultry or environmental samples (38 chickens, 1 duck and 10 environmental samples) from 23 live bird markets (LBMs) in:
      • Fujian (Longyan City),
      • Guangdong (Dongguan, Guangzhou, Huizhou, Lufeng, Meijiang, Meizhou, Zhongshan Cities and Haifeng County),
      • Hunan (Chenzhou City) and
      • Guangxi (Guilin City) Provinces; and
    • from 8 farms in:
      • Guangxi (Guilin City),
      • Hebei (a chicken layer farm in Xingtai City [reference]),
      • Henan (a chicken layer farm in Pingdingshan City [reference]),
      • Hunan (backyard in Chenzhou City and a large chicken layer farm in Yongzhou City [reference]),
      • Shaanxi (a chicken layer farm [reference]),
      • Tianjin (a chicken layer farm [reference]),
      • Inner Mongolia (two chicken layer farms in Hohhot and Baotou Cities [reference 1, reference 2],
      • Heilongjiang (a chicken layer farm in Shuangyashan City [reference]) and
      • Anhui (a farm in Chuzhou City, Juzhou County [reference]) Provinces.
      • Out of the 1589 confirmed human cases, H7N9 virus isolates from 28 human cases (including one from Taiwan Province) were found to be highly pathogenic for chickens.
  • FAO actions:
    • liaise with China and partners, monitor situation, monitor virus evolution, conduct market chain analysis, risk assessment, surveillance guidance and communication.


Map 1. Human cases and positive findings in birds or the environment

Human cases and positive findings in birds or the environment

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|-- Click to enlarge –|

Note:Human cases are depicted in the geographic location where they were reported; for some cases, exposure may have occurred in a different geographic location. Precise location of 30 human cases in Anhui (2), Beijing (2), Guangdong (1), Guangxi (1), Hebei (3), Hunan (1), Hubei (2), Jiangsu (2), Jiangxi (6), Sichuan (2), Zhejiang (3) and unknown (5) Provinces are currently not known, these cases are therefore not shown on the map.


Situation update

  • Animals
    • 13 September: MoA published the results of the national animal H7N9 surveillance for the month of August. Out of a total of 38,530 virology samples collected from 27 provinces, no sample tested positive for H7N9 [reference].
    • 29 August: MoA published the results of the national animal H7N9 surveillance for the month of July. A total of 224,820 samples (169,455 serum samples and 55,363 virology samples) were collected from 7,495 locations in 30 provinces. Out of these, 459 serum samples and 3 virology samples (from a farm in Beijing, a market in Yunnan and a farmer’s market in Xinjiang provinces) tested positive [reference].
    • 17 August, Anhui: During monitoring, the veterinary department of Quanzhou County, Chuzhou City identified a meat-chicken farm with clinical signs suspicious of avian influenza, where 1,368 chickens were sick and 910 had died. On 18 August, the Anhui Province Animal Disease Prevention and Control Center diagnosed H7 AI, confirmed by the National Avian Influenza reference laboratory confirmed as H7N9 avian influenza on 24 August. As a means of control, 74,463 birds have been culled. [reference]
  • Humans


Figure 1. Number of positive virological samples from birds or the environment, by province and origin as of 20 September 2017. Information provided corresponds to both high and low pathogenic H7N9 viruses.

Number of positive virological samples from birds or the environment, by province* and origin

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|-- Click to enlarge –|


Figure 2. Number of officially reported human cases since February 2013 as of 20 September 2017. Information provided corresponds to both high and low pathogenic H7N9 viruses.

Number of officially reported human cases since February 2013

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Figure 3. Incidence of officially reported human cases by month, based on onset date as of 20 September 2017. Information provided corresponds to both high and low pathogenic H7N9 viruses.

Incidence of officially reported human cases by week, based on onset date

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|-- Click to enlarge –-|

Note: For cases with unknown onset dates from wave 1 (n=7), wave 2 (n=2), wave 3 (n=146), wave 4 (n=27) and wave 5 (n=167) reporting dates were used instead.


Publications

  • Under a study, more than 800 H7N9 virus full genome sequences were generated and are analysed together with all genomes available in public databases.
    • The study is exploring the following scientific questions:
      • (i) what is the continuing evolutionary behavior of the H7N9 virus lineage;
      • (ii) what are the interactions or gene transfers between circulating H7N9 viruses and other enzootic influenza viruses, and the changes in genotypes over the four waves;
      • (iii) what are the interactions among sub-lineages or clades, i.e. predominance and/or sub-lineage replacement; and
      • (iv) what is the development and dissemination of the H7N9 viruses from a phylogeographic perspective. [reference]
  • The number of human infections reported in the fifth epidemic is almost as many as were reported during the previous four epidemics combined.
    • The consistent epidemiology combined with a similar number of clusters suggests that the increased number of human infections appears to be associated with wider geographic spread and higher prevalence of Asian H7N9 viruses among poultry rather than any increased incidence of poultry-to-human or human-to-human spread. [reference]
  • A qualitative risk assessment was carried out by FAO to determine the likelihood of Chinese-origin H7N9 HPAI virus spreading from known affected areas to currently unaffected areas of China during the period of May to September 2017.
    • The likelihood of human exposure to the Chinese origin influenza A(H7N9) virus (with high pathogenicity in chickens) through contact with infected birds, LBM visits or upon consumption of poultry meat or poultry-related products within affected areas of China during the period May to September 2017 is currently considered as low to moderate, with low uncertainty, with moderate for occupational exposure.
    • The likelihood of human exposure depends, among other factors, on the extent of infection in farms and whether infected birds are sent to market. [reference].


FAO’s support to countries


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Keywords: FAO; Updates; Avian Influenza; H7N9; China; Human; Poultry.

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