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#Update: Increase in #Human #Infections with #Avian #Influenza #H7N9 Viruses During the 5th #Epidemic — #China, Oct. ‘16–Aug. 7 ‘17 (@CDCgov, edited)

Title : #Update: Increase in #Human #Infections with #Avian #Influenza #H7N9 Viruses During the 5th #Epidemic — #China, Oct. ‘16–Aug. 7 ‘17....

28 Jun 2017

#Avian #Influenza #H7N9 – #Situation #update as of 28 June 2017 (#FAO, edited)


Title: #Avian #Influenza #H7N9 – #Situation #update as of 28 June 2017.

Subject: Avian Influenza, H7N9 subtype, poultry enzootic and human cases in China.

Source: Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), full page: (LINK).

Code: [     ][     ]

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Avian Influenza H7N9 – Situation update as of 28 June 2017

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The next update will be issued on 12 July 2017


Disclaimer

Information provided herein is current as of the date of issue. Information added or changed since the last H7N9 situation update appears in red. Human cases are depicted in the geographic location of their report. For some cases, exposure may have occurred in one geographic location but reported in another. For cases with unknown onset date, reporting date was used instead. FAO compiles information drawn from multiple national (Ministries of Agriculture or Livestock, Ministries of Health, Provincial Government websites; Centers for Disease Prevention and Control [CDC]) and international sources (World Health Organization [WHO], World Organisation for Animal Health [OIE]) as well as peer-reviewed scientific articles. FAO makes every effort to ensure, but does not guarantee, accuracy, completeness or authenticity of the information. The designation employed and the presentation of material on the map do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of FAO concerning the legal or constitutional status of any country, territory or sea area, or concerning the delimitation of frontiers.


Overview

  • Situation:
    • Influenza A(H7N9) virus with pandemic potential.
  • Country:
    • China; three human cases originated in China and were reported in Malaysia (1) and Canada (2).
  • Number of human cases:
    • 1568 confirmed;
    • 599 deaths (since February 2013).
  • Number of new findings in birds or the environment since last update (14 June 2017):
    • 74
  • Number of new human cases since last update (14 June 2017):
    • 16
  • Provinces/municipalities:
    • [China]
      1. Beijing,
      2. Chongqing,
      3. Shanghai and
      4. Tianjin Municipalities;
      5. Anhui,
      6. Fujian,
      7. Gansu,
      8. Guangdong,
      9. Guizhou,
      10. Hebei,
      11. Heilongjiang,
      12. Henan,
      13. Hubei,
      14. Hunan,
      15. Jiangsu,
      16. Jiangxi,
      17. Jilin,
      18. Liaoning,
      19. Qinghai,
      20. Shaanxi,
      21. Shanxi,
      22. Shandong,
      23. Sichuan,
      24. Yunnan and
      25. Zhejiang Provinces;
      26. Hong Kong SAR;
      27. Macao SAR,
      28. Guangxi,
      29. Inner Mongolia,
      30. Ningxia Hui,
      31. Tibet and
      32. Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Regions
    • [Taiwan];
    • [Malaysia]
      • Sabah
    • [Canada]
      • British Columbia.
  • Animal/environmental findings:
    • around 2,500 virological samples from the environment, chickens, pigeons, ducks and a tree sparrow tested positive; positives mainly from live bird markets, vendors and some commercial or breeding farms.
  • Highly pathogenic virus findings:
    • The H7N9 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus was detected in a total of 48 poultry or environmental samples (37 chickens, 1 duck and 10 environmental samples) from 23 live bird markets (LBMs) in:
      • Fujian (Longyan City),
      • Guangdong (Dongguan, Guangzhou, Huizhou, Lufeng, Meijiang, Meizhou, Zhongshan Cities and Haifeng County),
      • Hunan (Chenzhou City) and
      • Guangxi (Guilin City) Provinces;
    • and from 10 farms in:
      • Guangxi (Guilin City),
      • Hebei (a chicken layer farm [reference]),
      • Henan (a chicken layer farm in Pingdingshan City [reference]),
      • Hunan (backyard in Chenzhou City and a large chicken layer farm in Yongzhou City [reference]),
      • Shaanxi (a chicken layer farm [reference]),
      • Tianjin (a chicken layer farm [reference]),
      • Inner Mongolia (two chicken layer farms [reference 1, reference 2] and
      • Heilongjiang (a chicken layer farm [reference]) Provinces.
    • Out of the 1568 confirmed human cases, H7N9 virus isolates from 6 human cases (two from Guangdong and one from Taiwan Provinces) were found to be highly pathogenic for chickens.
  • FAO actions:
    • liaise with China and partners, monitor situation, monitor virus evolution, conduct market chain analysis, risk assessment, surveillance guidance and communication.


Map 1. Human cases and positive findings in birds or the environment

Human cases and positive findings in birds or the environment

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|-- Click to enlarge –|

Note: Human cases are depicted in the geographic location where they were reported; for some cases, exposure may have occurred in a different geographic location. Precise location of 25 human cases in Anhui (2), Beijing (2), Guangdong (1), Guangxi (1), Hebei (3), Hunan (1), Hubei (2), Jiangsu (2), Jiangxi (6), Sichuan (2) and Zhejiang (3) Provinces are currently not known, these cases are therefore not shown on the map.


Situation update

  • Animals
    • 26 June, Guangdong:
      • the Ministry of Agriculture approved to carry out the first pilot vaccination in Guangdong, to explore its use for national H7N9 prevention and control.
      • Guangdong province will strive for a vaccination coverage of up to 100%, and an immunity level of at least 70%.
      • The effect of immunization will be monitored [reference].
    • 23 June, Heilongjiang:
      • The first H7N9 outbreak was observed in the province in Baoqing County, Shuangyashan City on 10 June in a chicken layer farm (20,150 sick, 19,500 deaths) and confirmed to be due to a HPAI strain; 16,610 poultry have been culled on 16 June [reference 1, reference 2].
    • 13 June, Inner Mongolia:
      • The two previously reported H7N9 outbreaks that occurred in Hohhot and Baotou Cities were confirmed to be due to the HPAI strain [reference 1, reference 2].
  • Humans
    • Since the last update (14 June 2017), 16 new human cases have been reported in:
      • Beijing (3),
      • Guizhou (2),
      • Hebei (2),
      • Sichuan (2),
      • Anhui (1),
      • Guangxi (1),
      • Hunan (1),
      • Inner Mongolia (1),
      • Jiangsu (1),
      • Tianjin (1),
      • Zhejiang (1).
    • For detailed information on human cases, please refer to WHO's Disease Outbreak News.


Figure 1. Number of positive virological samples from birds or the environment, by province and origin as of 28 June 2017. Information provided corresponds to both high and low pathogenic H7N9 viruses.

Number of positive virological samples from birds or the environment, by province* and origin

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|-- Click to enlarge –|


Figure 2. Number of officially reported human cases since February 2013 as of 28 June 2017. Information provided corresponds to both high and low pathogenic H7N9 viruses.

Number of officially reported human cases since February 2013

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|-- Click to enlarge –|


Figure 3. Incidence of officially reported human cases by month, based on onset date as of 28 June 2017. Information provided corresponds to both high and low pathogenic H7N9 viruses.

Incidence of officially reported human cases by week, based on onset date

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|-- Click to enlarge –|

Note: For cases with unknown onset dates from wave 1 (n=7), wave 2 (n=2), wave 3 (n=146), wave 4 (n= 27) and wave 5 (n=177) reporting dates were used instead.


Publications

  • In addition to the surveillance findings by MoA and MoH, 1,728 virologically positive samples have also been reported in 12 peer-reviewed articles (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12). A total of 71,920 samples have been collected in these studies since April 2013, of which 1,728 (2.4%) were positive for H7N9 (1,215 environmental samples, 501 chickens, 1 goose and 1 tree sparrow).
  • Mutation analyses were conducted to determine if the H7 HA was capable of acquiring human-type receptor specificity. Remarkably, three amino acid mutations conferred a switch in specificity for human-type receptors that resembled the specificity of the 2009 human H1 pandemic virus, and promoted binding to human trachea epithelial cells [reference].


FAO’s support to countries

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Keywords: FAO; Updates; Avian Influenza; H7N9; Human; Poultry; China.

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