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A Highly Pathogenic #Avian #H7N9 #Influenza Virus Isolated from A #Human Is Lethal in Some #Ferrets Infected via #Respiratory #Droplets (Cell Host Microbe, abstract)

Title : A Highly Pathogenic #Avian #H7N9 #Influenza Virus Isolated from A #Human Is Lethal in Some #Ferrets Infected via #Respiratory #Drop...

24 May 2017

#Avian #Influenza #H7N9 – #Situation #update as of 24 May 2017 (#FAO, edited)


Title: #Avian #Influenza #H7N9 – #Situation #update as of 24 May 2017.

Subject: Avian Influenza, H7N9 subtype, poultry enzootic and human cases in China.

Source: Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), full page: (LINK).

Code: [     ][     ]

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Avian Influenza H7N9 – Situation update as of 24 May 2017

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The next update will be issued on 31 May 2017


Disclaimer

Information provided herein is current as of the date of issue. Information added or changed since the last H7N9 situation update appears in red. Human cases are depicted in the geographic location of their report. For some cases, exposure may have occurred in one geographic location but reported in another. For cases with unknown onset date, reporting date was used instead. FAO compiles information drawn from multiple national (Ministries of Agriculture or Livestock, Ministries of Health, Provincial Government websites; Centers for Disease Prevention and Control [CDC]) and international sources (World Health Organization [WHO], World Organisation for Animal Health [OIE]) as well as peer-reviewed scientific articles. FAO makes every effort to ensure, but does not guarantee, accuracy, completeness or authenticity of the information. The designation employed and the presentation of material on the map do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of FAO concerning the legal or constitutional status of any country, territory or sea area, or concerning the delimitation of frontiers.


Overview

  • Situation:
    • Influenza A(H7N9) virus with pandemic potential.
  • Country:
    • China; three human cases originated in China and were reported in Malaysia (1) and Canada (2).
  • Number of human cases:
    • 1525 confirmed; 579 deaths (since February 2013).
  • Number of new findings in birds or the environment since last update (17 May 2017):
    • 3.
  • Number of new human cases since last update (17 May 2017):
    • 17.
  • Provinces/municipalities:
    • [China]
      • Beijing,
      • Chongqing,
      • Shanghai and
      • Tianjin Municipalities;
      • Anhui,
      • Fujian,
      • Gansu,
      • Guangdong,
      • Guizhou,
      • Hebei,
      • Henan,
      • Hubei,
      • Hunan,
      • Jiangsu,
      • Jiangxi,
      • Jilin,
      • Liaoning,
      • Qinghai,
      • Shaanxi,
      • Shanxi,
      • Shandong,
      • Sichuan,
      • Yunnan and
      • Zhejiang Provinces;
      • Hong Kong SAR;
      • Macao SAR,
      • Guangxi,
      • Inner Mongolia,
      • Ningxia Hui,
      • Tibet and
      • Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Regions
    • [Taiwan];
    • [Malaysia]
      • Sabah;
    • [Canada]
      • British Columbia.
  • Animal/environmental findings:
    • around 2,500 virological samples from the environment, chickens, pigeons, ducks and a tree sparrow tested positive; positives mainly from live bird markets, vendors and some commercial or breeding farms.
  • Highly pathogenic virus findings:
    • The H7N9 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus was detected in a total of 43 poultry or environmental samples (32 chickens, 1 duck and 10 environmental samples) from 23 live bird markets (LBMs) in:
      • Fujian (Longyan City),
      • Guangdong (Dongguan, Guangzhou, Huizhou, Lufeng, Meijiang, Meizhou, Zhongshan Cities and Haifeng County),
      • Hunan (Chenzhou City) and
      • Guangxi (Guilin City) Provinces;
        • and
    • from 4 farms in:
      • Guangxi (Guilin City),
      • Hebei (a chicken layer farm [reference]),
      • Henan (a chicken layer farm in Pingdingshan City [reference]) and
      • Hunan (backyard in Chenzhou City and a large chicken layer farm in Yongzhou City [reference]) Provinces.
    • Out of the 1525 confirmed human cases, H7N9 virus isolates from three human cases (two from Guangdong and one from Taiwan Provinces) were found to be highly pathogenic for chickens.
  • FAO actions:
    • liaise with China and partners, monitor situation, monitor virus evolution, conduct market chain analysis, risk assessment, surveillance guidance and communication.


Map 1. Human cases and positive findings in birds or the environment

Human cases and positive findings in birds or the environment

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|-- Click to enlarge –|

Note: Human cases are depicted in the geographic location where they were reported; for some cases, exposure may have occurred in a different geographic location. Precise location of 24 human cases in Anhui (2), Beijing (2), Guangdong (1), Guangxi (1), Hebei (3), Hunan (1), Hubei (2), Jiangsu (1), Jiangxi (6), Sichuan (2) and Zhejiang (3) Provinces are currently not known, these cases are therefore not shown on the map.


Situation update

  • Animals
    • 17 May, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region:
      • H7N9 virus was detected for the first time in environmental and poultry samples collected from live bird markets in three different cities, namely Tongliao City, Xilin Gol League, and Hinggan League [reference].
      • So far, no human case has ever been reported in Inner Mongolia. The province borders Mongolia.
    • 15 May, Henan:
      • The H7N9 outbreak reported on 12 May was confirmed to be due to a highly pathogenic strain [reference].
  • Humans
    • Since the last update (17 May 2017), 17 new human cases have been reported in:
      • Hebei (6),
      • Shandong (2),
      • Sichuan (2),
      • Anhui (1),
      • Beijing (1),
      • Chongqing (1),
      • Jiangsu (1),
      • Shaanxi (1),
      • Shanxi (1),
      • Zhejiang (1).
    • For detailed information on human cases, please refer to WHO's Disease Outbreak News.


Figure 1. Number of positive virological samples from birds or the environment, by province and origin as of 24 May 2017. Information provided corresponds to both high and low pathogenic H7N9 viruses.

Number of positive virological samples from birds or the environment, by province* and origin

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|-- Click to enlarge –|


Figure 2. Number of officially reported human cases since February 2013 as of 24 May 2017. Information provided corresponds to both high and low pathogenic H7N9 viruses.

Number of officially reported human cases since February 2013

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|-- Click to enlarge –|


Figure 3. Incidence of officially reported human cases by month, based on onset date as of 24 May 2017. Information provided corresponds to both high and low pathogenic H7N9 viruses.

Incidence of officially reported human cases by week, based on onset date

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|-- Click to enlarge –|

Note: For cases with unknown onset dates from wave 1 (n=7), wave 2 (n=2), wave 3 (n=146), wave 4 (n= 27) and wave 5 (n=182) reporting dates were used instead.


Publications

  • In addition to the surveillance findings by MoA and MoH, 1,728 virologically positive samples have also been reported in 12 peer-reviewed articles (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12). A total of 71,920 samples have been collected in these studies since April 2013, of which 1,728 (2.4%) were positive for H7N9 (1,215 environmental samples, 501 chickens, 1 goose and 1 tree sparrow).
  • A study tested a HA-recombinant adenovirus-based vaccine and compared it with a H7N9 DNA vaccine (based on HA) in mice and guinea pigs. The results demonstrated that both vaccines boost regimen induced potent immune responses in animals and completely protected mice from lethal H7N9 influenza viral challenge. The data suggest that the chimpanzee adenovirus expressing HA is a promising vaccine candidate for H7N9 virus or other influenza viral subtypes [reference].
  • A study examined factors associated with poultry farmers' adoption of personal protective behaviors (PPBs) based on Protection Motivation Theory (PMT) in three cities of Jiangsu Province: Poultry farmers perceive A/H7N9 as a personally-irrelevant risk. Interventions designed to enhance perceived response efficacy, particularly among lower educated respondents, may effectively motivate adoption of PPBs. Informal information may be an important resource for enhancing response efficacy [reference].


FAO’s support to countries

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Keywords: FAO; Updates; H7N9; Avian Influenza; Human; Poultry; China.

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