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A Highly Pathogenic #Avian #H7N9 #Influenza Virus Isolated from A #Human Is Lethal in Some #Ferrets Infected via #Respiratory #Droplets (Cell Host Microbe, abstract)

Title : A Highly Pathogenic #Avian #H7N9 #Influenza Virus Isolated from A #Human Is Lethal in Some #Ferrets Infected via #Respiratory #Drop...

17 Apr 2017

#Global #Avian #Influenza #H5N8 #Situation #Update as of 14 April 2017 (#FAO, edited)

 

Title: #Global #Avian #Influenza #H5N8 #Situation #Update as of 14 April 2017.

Subject: Avian Influenza, H5 Clade 2.3.4.4. reassortants, global poultry and wild birds panzootic.

Source: Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), full page: (LINK)

Code: [     ][     ]

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Global Avian Influenza H5N8 Situation Update as of 14 April 2017

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Disclaimer

Information provided herein is current as of the date of issue. Information added or changed since the last H5N8 situation update appears in red. Human cases are depicted in the geographic location of their report. For some cases, exposure may have occurred in one geographic location but reported in another. For cases with unknown onset date, reporting date was used instead. FAO compiles information drawn from multiple national (Ministries of Agriculture or Livestock, Ministries of Health, Provincial Government websites; Centers for Disease Prevention and Control [CDC]) and international sources (World Health Organization [WHO], World Organisation for Animal Health [OIE]) as well as peer-reviewed scientific articles. FAO makes every effort to ensure, but does not guarantee, accuracy, completeness or authenticity of the information. The designation employed and the presentation of material on the map do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of FAO concerning the legal or constitutional status of any country, territory or sea area, or concerning the delimitation of frontiers.

 

Overview

  • Situation:
    • H5N8 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) 2016 virus in Africa, Asia, Europe and Middle East with pandemic potential.
  • Confirmed countries*:
    1. Austria*,
    2. Belgium*,
    3. Bosnia and Herzegovina*,
    4. Bulgaria*,
    5. Cameroon*,
    6. China,
    7. Croatia*,
    8. the Czech Republic*,
    9. Denmark*,
    10. Egypt*,
    11. Finland,
    12. The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia*,
    13. France*,
    14. Germany*,
    15. Greece*,
    16. Hungary*,
    17. India*,
    18. Iran (Islamic Republic of)*,
    19. Israel*,
    20. Ireland,
    21. Italy*,
    22. Kazakhstan,
    23. the Republic of Korea*,
    24. Kuwait*,
    25. Lithuania,
    26. Nepal*,
    27. the Netherlands*,
    28. Niger*,
    29. Nigeria*,
    30. Poland*,
    31. Portugal,
    32. Romania*,
    33. Russian Federation*,
    34. Serbia*,
    35. Slovakia*,
    36. Slovenia,
    37. Spain*,
    38. Sweden*,
    39. Switzerland,
    40. Tunisia,
    41. the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland*,
    42. Uganda* and
    43. Ukraine*.
  • Animal/environmental findings
    • Domestic bird species affected:
      1. Chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus),
      2. Duck (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus),
      3. Turkey (Meleagris gallopavo),
      4. Goose (Anserinae sp.),
      5. Common Guineafowl (Numida meleagris).
    • Wild bird species affected:
      1. Armenian Gull (Larus armenicus),
      2. Been Goose (Anser fabalis),
      3. Black-headed Gull (Chroicocephalus ridibundus),
      4. Black Swan (Cygnus atratus),
      5. Canada Goose (Branta canadensis),
      6. Cattle Egret (Bubulcus ibis),
      7. Black-winged Stilt (Himantopus himantopus),
      8. Columbidae,
      9. Common Barn-Owl (Tyto alba),
      10. Common Buzzard (Buteo buteo),
      11. Common Coot (Fulica atra),
      12. Common Crane (Grus grus),
      13. Common Goldeneye (Bucephala clangula),
      14. Common Kestrel (Falco tinnunculus),
      15. Common Magpie (Pica pica),
      16. Common Moorhen (Gallinula chloropus),
      17. Common Pheasant (Phasianus colchicus),
      18. Common Pochard (Aythya ferina),
      19. Common Raven (Corvus Corax),
      20. Common ringed plover (Charadrius hiaticula),
      21. Common Shelduck (Tadorna tadorna),
      22. Common Starling (Sturnus vulgaris),
      23. Common Teal (Anas crecca),
      24. Common Tern (Sterna hirundo),
      25. Common Wood-Pigeon (Columba palumbus),
      26. Crow (Corvus sp.),
      27. Curlew (Numenius sp.),
      28. Eider (Somateria mollissima),
      29. Emu (Dromaius novaeollandiae),
      30. Eurasian bittern (Botaurus stellaris),
      31. Eurasian Blackbird (Turdus merula),
      32. Eurasian Collared Dove (Streptopella decaocto),
      33. Eurasian Curlew (Numenius arquata),
      34. Eurasian Eagle-Owl (Bubo bubo),
      35. Eurasian Sparrowhawk (Accipiter nisus),
      36. Eurasian Spoonbill (Platalea leucorodia),
      37. Eurasian Wigeon (Anas penelope),
      38. Fieldfare (Turdus pilaris),
      39. Ferruginous Pochard (Aythya nyroca),
      40. Glossy Ibis (Plegadis falcinellus),
      41. Great Cested Grebe (Podiceps cristatus),
      42. Great Cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo),
      43. Great Egret (Ardea alba),
      44. Great White Pelican (Pelecanus onocrotalus),
      45. Greater White-fronted Goose (Anser albifrons),
      46. Greylag Goose (Anser anser),
      47. Gadwall (Anas strepera),
      48. Great black-backed Gull (Larus marinus),
      49. Great White Pelican (Pelecanus onocrotalus),
      50. Greater Flamingo (Phoenicopterus roseus),
      51. Greater Rhea (Rhea americana),
      52. Green Sandpiper (Tringa ochropus),
      53. Grey Heron (Ardea cinerea),
      54. Gull (Laridae),
      55. Herring Gull (Larus argentatus),
      56. Hooded Crow (Corvus cornix),
      57. Kentish plover (Charadrius alexandrines),
      58. Indian Peafowl (Pavo cristatus),
      59. Lesser Black-backed Gull (Larus fuscus),
      60. Lesser white-fronted goose (Anser erythropus),
      61. Little Egret (Egretta garzetta),
      62. Little ringed plover (Charadrius dubius),
      63. Little stint (Calidris minuta),
      64. Long Eared Owl (Asio otus),
      65. Little Grebe (Tachybaptus ruficollis),
      66. Mew Gull (Larus canus),
      67. Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos),
      68. Marbled teal (Marmaronetta angustirostris),
      69. Munia (Lonchura sp.),
      70. Muscovy Duck (Cairina moschata),
      71. Mute Swan (Cygnus olor),
      72. Northern Goshawk (Accipiter gentilis),
      73. Northern Shoveler (Anas clypeata),
      74. Owl (Strigiformes),
      75. Painted Stork (Mycteria leucocephala),
      76. Peacock (Pavo cristatus),
      77. Pelican (Pelecanus sp.),
      78. Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus),
      79. Pheasant (Phasianidae sp.),
      80. Pied avocet (Recurvirostra avosetta),
      81. Pink-footed Goose (Anser brachyrhynchus),
      82. Pygmy Cormorant (Phalacrocorax pygmaeus),
      83. Red-crested Pochard (Netta rufina),
      84. Red-footed Falcon (Falco vespertinus),
      85. Rook (Corvus frugilegus),
      86. Ruff (Philomachus pugnax),
      87. Saker Falcon (Falco cherrug),
      88. Song Thrush (Turdus philomelos),
      89. Stork (Ciconiidae sp.),
      90. Tufted Duck (Aythya fuligula),
      91. Tundra Swan (Cygnus columbianus),
      92. Western Cattle Egret (Bubulcus ibis),
      93. White Stork (Ciconia ciconia),
      94. White Tailed Eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla),
      95. White-winged Black Tern (Chlidonias leucoptera),
      96. Whooper swan (Cygnus cygnus),
      97. Wild Duck (Aythyinae or Anatinae sp.),
      98. Wood Sandpiper (Tringa glareola),
      99. Yellow-legged Gull (Larus michahellis).
  • Number of human cases:
    • None reported to date.

 

Map 1. H5N8 HPAI outbreaks officially reported in Asia, Europe and Africa by onset date, since 1 January 2017

H5N8 HPAI outbreaks officially reported in Asia, Europe and Africa by onset date, since 1 January 2017

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|—Click on image to enlarge –|

Note: In addition to the outbreaks shown on the map, the following countries were affected between 01 June 2016 and 31 December 2016: Austria, Bulgaria, China, Croatia, Denmark, Egypt, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, India, Iran (Islamic Republic of), Ireland, Israel, Italy, Kuwait, the Netherlands, Nigeria, Poland, Russian Federation, Serbia, Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland, Tunisia, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, Ukraine.

 

FAO's support to countries

  • Global level
    • A webinar titled Intercontinental spread of H5N8 highly pathogenic avian influenza – Analysis of the current situation and recommendations for preventive action, targeting national veterinary services and FAO regional and country teams, was conducted by FAO on 24 November 2016 [link]
    • A teleconference on H5N8 HPAI and wild birds has been held by the OFFLU wildlife group on 22 November 2016
    • EMPRES Watch, September 2016: H5N8 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) of clade 2.3.4.4 detected through surveillance of wild migratory birds in the Tyva Republic, the Russian Federation – potential for international spread [link]
    • EMPRES news, 4 November 2016: H5N8 highly pathogenic avian influenza detected in Hungary and in the Republic of India H5N8 highly pathogenic avian influenza detected in Hungary and in the Republic of India [link]
    • Report of the WHO Vaccine Composition Meeting September 2016 [link] and March 2017 [link]
  • Regional level
    • FAO Regional Office for Europe and Central Asia news, November 2016: Highly pathogenic avian influenza spreading in Europe, South Asia [link]
    • FAO Regional Office for Europe and Central Asia news, September 2016: Emergent Avian Influenza virus detected in surveillance of migratory birds in Russian Federation (FAO Regional Office for Europe and Central Asia news [link]
    • FAO organised an Expert Consultation on Contingency Planning for Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza in the Near-East and North Africa (NENA) region on 18-19 December 2016 in Cairo, Egypt. The consultation brought chief veterinary officers, veterinary epidemiologists and lab experts from NENA countries. FAO experts and partners (OIE and WHO) facilitated the sessions.

 

Recent publications

  1. Li M, et al. Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H5N8) Virus in Wild Migratory Birds, Qinghai Lake, China. Emerg Infect Dis. Apr (2017) [Reference].
    • In May 2016, a highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N8) virus strain caused deaths among 3 species of wild migratory birds in Qinghai Lake, China. Genetic analysis showed that the novel reassortant virus belongs to group B H5N8 viruses and that the reassortment events likely occurred in early 2016.
  2. Nagarajan S. et al. Novel Reassortant Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (H5N8) Virus in Zoos, India. Emerg Infect Dis., Apr (2017) [Reference].
    • In October 2016, HPAI H5N8 viruses were detected in waterfowls in two different zoos in India. Suggestion of virus spread through migratory birds during winter as viruses found were different from the H5N8 isolated in May 2016 in China and the Russian Federation.
  3. Kang H.M. et al. Experimental infection of mandarin duck with highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H5N8 and H5N1) viruses. Vet Microbiol., Jan (2017) [Reference].
    • Study showing pathogenicity and transmissibility of H5N8 (clade 2.3.4.4) and H5N1 (clades 2.2 and 2.3.2.1) in experimentally infected mandarin ducks. Results suggested that H5N8 viruses spread efficiently in mandarin ducks.
  4. Marchenko V.Y. et al. Reintroduction of highly pathogenic avian influenza A/H5N8 virus of clade 2.3.4.4. in Russia. Arch Virol., Jan (2017) [Reference].
    • Analysis of H5N8 virus clade 2.3.4.4 isolated in 2016 during spring and fall seasons in the Russian Federation. Strains showed different antigenic and genetic features from the H5N8 strain that circulated in the country in 2014. The investigated strains also showed high pathogenicity for mice.

 

Recommendations for affected countries and those at risk

    • FAO recommends intensified surveillance and awareness raising by national authorities.
    • There is no benefit to be gained in attempting to control the virus in wild birds through culling or habitat destruction.
    • Spraying of birds or the environment with disinfectant – for example sodium hypochlorite or bleach – is considered potentially counter-productive, harmful to the environment and not effective from a disease control perspective.
    • There is also no justification for any pre-emptive culling of endangered species in zoological collections.
    • Control measures for captive wild birds in places where virus is detected should be based on strict movement control, isolation and only when necessary limited culling of affected birds.
  • General recommendations
    • It is important to report sick or dead birds – both wild birds and poultry - to local authorities (veterinary services, public health officials, community leaders etc.). These should be tested for avian influenza viruses.
    • Wash hands properly and often. You should always do so after handling birds or other animals, when cooking or preparing animal products, and before eating.
    • Eat only well-cooked meat products, and refrain from collecting, consuming or selling animals found sick or dead.
    • Seek immediate advice from your physician if you show signs of fever after being in contact with poultry, farmed birds, wild birds or other animals.
  • Recommendations to poultry producers
    • Farmers and poultry producers should step up their biosecurity measures in order to prevent potential virus introduction from wild birds or their faeces.
    • It is important to keep poultry and other animals away from wild birds and their sub-products or droppings through screens, fencing or nets.
    • Commercial poultry operations and backyard poultry owners should avoid the introduction of pathogens through contaminated clothes, footwear, vehicles or equipment used in waterfowl hunting.
  • Recommendations to hunters
    • Hunting associations and wildlife authorities should be aware that H5N8 and other avian influenza viruses might be present in waterfowl hunted and that hunting, handling and dressing of shot waterfowl carries the risk of spreading avian influenza viruses to susceptible poultry.
    • Avoid introduction of avian influenza viruses to poultry through fomites (clothing, boots, vehicles, etc.) and do not feed wild bird scraps to poultry.
    • Water bird scraps should not be fed to domestic animals (cats, dogs, or poultry).
    • Any waste from hunted birds should be treated as potentially contaminated and safely disposed of.
  • Recommendations to national authorities
    • Increase surveillance efforts for the early detection of H5N8 and other influenza viruses in poultry and dead wild birds.
    • Provide means for reporting sick or dead birds, e.g. hotlines and collection points.
    • Raise awareness of the general population, poultry producers or marketers and hunters both about the disease as well as the reporting mechanisms for sick or dead birds.
    • Collaborate with hunting associations for laboratory testing of hunted birds, especially in areas that are known to be affected.
    • Provide means for and ensure proper disposal of carcases after sample collection.
    • Ensure that the means for laboratory testing are in place to detect the currently circulating avian influenza viruses, especially those of clade 2.3.4.4 (contact: EMPRES-Lab-Unit@fao.org).
    • Gene sequencing should be performed for all H5 viruses detected, either in national or international reference laboratories. FAO can assist with the shipment of samples (contact: EMPRES-Shipping-Service@fao.org). Results should be shared with the global community in a timely manner to aid understanding of how the virus is spreading.
    • Action on wild birds not recommended.

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{x} Reports of H5N8 HPAI events in Taiwan, Province of China, are not included in this update since the virus belongs to a genetically different strain.

{*} Countries in which the virus was detected in poultry.

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Keywords: FAO; Updates; Avian Influenza; H5N8; Poultry; Wild Birds; Worldwide.

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