BOA1

Featured post

A Highly Pathogenic #Avian #H7N9 #Influenza Virus Isolated from A #Human Is Lethal in Some #Ferrets Infected via #Respiratory #Droplets (Cell Host Microbe, abstract)

Title : A Highly Pathogenic #Avian #H7N9 #Influenza Virus Isolated from A #Human Is Lethal in Some #Ferrets Infected via #Respiratory #Drop...

6 Apr 2017

#Avian #Influenza #H7N9 [#Asian Lineage]–#situation #update as of 5 April 2017 (#FAO, edited)

 

Title: #Avian #Influenza #H7N9 [#Asian Lineage]–#situation #update as of 5 April 2017.

Subject: Avian Influenza, H7N9 subtype (Asian Lineage), poultry enzootic and human cases in China.

Source: Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), full page: (LINK).

Code: [     ][     ]

_____

Avian Influenza H7N9 [Asian Lineage] - situation update as of 5 April 2017

___

The next update will be issued on 12 April 2017

 

Disclaimer

Information provided herein is current as of the date of issue. Information added or changed since the last H7N9 situation update appears in red. Human cases are depicted in the geographic location of their report. For some cases, exposure may have occurred in one geographic location but reported in another. For cases with unknown onset date, reporting date was used instead. FAO compiles information drawn from multiple national (Ministries of Agriculture or Livestock, Ministries of Health, Provincial Government websites; Centers for Disease Prevention and Control [CDC]) and international sources (World Health Organization [WHO], World Organisation for Animal Health [OIE]) as well as peer-reviewed scientific articles. FAO makes every effort to ensure, but does not guarantee, accuracy, completeness or authenticity of the information. The designation employed and the presentation of material on the map do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of FAO concerning the legal or constitutional status of any country, territory or sea area, or concerning the delimitation of frontiers.

 

Overview

  • Situation:
    • Influenza A(H7N9) virus with pandemic potential.
  • Country:
    • China; three human cases originated in China and were reported in Malaysia (1) and Canada (2).
  • Number of human cases:
    • 1381 confirmed; 501 deaths (since February 2013).
  • Number of new findings in birds or the environment since last update (29 March 2017): 1.
  • Number of new human cases since last update (29 March 2017): 20.
  • Provinces/municipalities:
    • [China]
      • Beijing,
      • Chongqing,
      • Shanghai and
      • Tianjin municipalities;
      • Anhui,
      • Fujian,
      • Gansu,
      • Guangdong,
      • Guizhou,
      • Hebei,
      • Henan,
      • Hubei,
      • Hunan,
      • Jiangsu,
      • Jiangxi,
      • Jilin,
      • Liaoning,
      • Qinghai,
      • Shandong,
      • Sichuan,
      • Yunnan and
      • Zhejiang;
      • Hong Kong SAR;
      • Macao SAR,
      • Guangxi,
      • Ningxia Hui and
      • Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Regions;
    • [Taiwan],
    • [Malaysia]
      • Sabah;
    • [Canada]
      • British Columbia.
  • Animal/environmental findings:
    • around 2,500 virological samples from the environment, chickens, pigeons, ducks and a tree sparrow tested positive; positives mainly from live bird markets, vendors and some commercial or breeding farms.
  • Highly pathogenic virus findings:
    • Out of the 1381 confirmed human cases, H7N9 virus isolates from three cases (two from Guangdong and one from Taiwan Provinces) were found to be highly pathogenic for chickens.
    • In addition, the H7N9 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus was detected in 16 chicken and 6 environmental samples from Guangdong Province and from a large farm in Hunan Province [reference].
  • Note:
    • The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) National Veterinary Services Laboratories (NVSL) have confirmed a H7N9 highly pathogenic (Tennessee), and a H7N9 low pathogenic avian influenza virus (Tennessee, Alabama, Kentucky).
    • Sequencing of the genome confirmed that they are of North American wild bird lineage origin.
    • These viruses are thus not the same as the ones currently circulating in China. [reference1, reference 2, reference 3, reference 4, reference 5]
  • FAO actions:
    • liaise with China and partners, monitor situation, monitor virus evolution, conduct market chain analysis, risk assessment, surveillance guidance and communication.

 

Map 1. Human cases and positive findings in birds or the environment

Human cases and positive findings in birds or the environment

__

|—Click on image to enlarge –|

Note: Human cases are depicted in the geographic location where they were reported; for some cases, exposure may have occurred in a different geographic location. Precise location of 21 human cases in Anhui (2), Beijing (1), Guangdong (1), Guangxi (1), Hebei (2), Hunan (1), Hubei (2), Jiangsu (1), Jiangxi (5), Sichuan (2) and Zhejiang (3) Provinces are currently not known, these cases are therefore not shown on the map.

 

Situation update

  • Animals
    • Gansu:
      • Disease control department of Suzhou District, Jiuquan City, Gansu Province identified a sample positive for avian influenza in a live poultry shop near the Suzhou market on 1 April, and H7N9 was confirmed by Jiuquan City CDC.
      • In response to this finding, the Suzhou District, Jiuquan City, closed all live bird markets in the centre and suburbs and suspended live poultry trades [reference].
    • Jiangxi:
      • Yichun City: closure of live bird markets has been extended until 30 April [reference].
      • Shangrao County: temporary suspension of all live bird markets and live bird trade from 18 March to 17 April for prevention purposes [reference].
      • Ji'an City: temporary suspension of live bird markets in Suichuan County from 25 March to 7 April for prevention purposes [reference].
    • Hunan:
      • Miluo City: following the detection of a human case on 19 March, all trade and live bird markets are suspended until 12 April [reference].
      • Shaoguan City: temporary suspension of live bird markets in the entire city occurred from 20 to 22 March; and in Shixing County from 1 to 3 April [reference].
      • Xiangtan City: all live bird markets of Xiangxiang City are closed from 25 March to 14 April (21 days) [reference].
    • Guangxi:
      • Baise City: a monthly suspension day for live bird markets and live bird trading areas was set in Tianyang, Tianlin and in Xilin Counties [reference 1, reference 2, reference 3].
    • Guangdong:
      • Jieyang City: live bird markets in the entire city were suspended from 20 to 22 March [reference].
      • Huizhou City: central market of Boluo County was suspended by urgent notice from 21 to 23 March [reference].
    • Guizhou:
      • Qiannan Buyei and Miao Autonomous Prefecture: temporary suspension of live bird markets in Longli County has been extended until 1 May after the detection of H7 positive environmental sample on 17 March [reference].
      • Zunyi City: a 15 day temporary suspension of live bird trading areas has been implemented in Huichan District since 23 March [reference].
    • Fujian:
      • Fuzhou City: all 24 live bird shops in Pingtan Comprehensive Experimental District were temporarily closed from 9 to 10 March (2 days) [reference].
  • Humans
    • Since the last update (29 March 2017), 20 new human cases have been reported in:
      • Hunan (6),
      • Jiangsu (4),
      • Guangxi (3),
      • Fujian (2),
      • Guizhou (2),
      • Chongqing (1),
      • Shandong (1),
      • Zhejiang (1).
    • For detailed information on human cases, please refer to WHO's Disease Outbreak News.

 

Figure 1. Number of positive virological samples from birds or the environment, by province and origin as of 5 April 2017. Information provided corresponds to both high and low pathogenic H7N9 viruses.

Number of positive virological samples from birds or the environment, by province* and origin

__

|—Click on image to enlarge –|

 

Figure 2. Number of H7N9 virus isolations from poultry and environmental surveillance conducted by the Ministry of Agriculture, China, by month as of 28 March 2017. Courtesy: FAO ECTAD China

Number of officially reported human cases since February 2013

__

|—Click on image to enlarge –|

 

Map 2. Highly pathogenic H7N9 virus confirmed in birds or the environment since February 2017 and as of 28 March, Ministry of Agriculture, China. Courtesy: FAO ECTAD China

Number of positive virological samples from birds or the environment, by province* and origin

__

|—Click on image to enlarge –|

 

Figure 3. Number of officially reported human cases since February 2013 as of 5 April 2017. Information provided corresponds to both high and low pathogenic H7N9 viruses.

Number of officially reported human cases since February 2013

__

|—Click on image to enlarge –|

 

Figure 4. Incidence of officially reported human cases by month, based on onset date as of 5 April 2017. Information provided corresponds to both high and low pathogenic H7N9 viruses.

Incidence of officially reported human cases by week, based on onset date

__

|—Click on image to enlarge –|

Note: For cases with unknown onset dates from wave 1 (n=7), wave 2 (n=2), wave 3 (n=146), wave 4 (n= 27) and wave 5 (n=469) reporting dates were used instead.

 

Publications

  • In addition to the surveillance findings by MoA and MoH, 1,728 virologically positive samples have also been reported in 12 peer-reviewed articles (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12).
  • A total of 71,920 samples have been collected in these studies since April 2013, of which 1,728 (2.4%) were positive for H7N9 (1,215 environmental samples, 501 chickens, 1 goose and 1 tree sparrow).
  • A spatial risk analysis concerning H7N9 and H5N1 in China has been published aiming to better understand the spreading mechanisms of these viruses. Spatial risk profiles for each of the two virus subtypes were provided so that specific high risk areas can be targeted for control measures [reference].
  • A study demonstrated that the neuraminidase (NA) of the zoonotic viruses H7N9 ( in form of purified or native protein) has a binding capacity and unusual kinetic properties to human-like receptors. This could have implications for understanding human-to-human transmission of these viruses [reference].

 

FAO’s support to countries

-

Keywords: FAO; Updates; H7N9; Avian Influenza; Human; China; Poultry.

-------