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31 Oct 2016

Middle East respiratory syndrome #coronavirus (#MERS-CoV) – #Saudi Arabia (@WHO, Oct. 31 ‘16)

 

Title: Middle East respiratory syndrome #coronavirus (#MERS-CoV) – #Saudi Arabia.

Subject: MERS-CoV epidemic in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, new cases.

Source: World Health Organizatoin (WHO), full page: (LINK).

Code: [     ]

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Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) – Saudi Arabia

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Disease outbreak news / 31 October 2016

Between 16 September and 10 October 2016 the National IHR Focal Point of Saudi Arabia seven (7) additional cases of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) including one (1) fatal case.

 

Details of the cases

  1. A 28-year-old male non-national living in Hail city, Hail Region.
    • He developed symptoms on 5 October and was admitted to hospital on 8 October.
    • The patient who has no comorbidities, tested positive for MERS-CoV on 9 October.
    • Investigation of history of exposure to the known risk factors in the 14 days prior to the onset of symptoms is ongoing.
    • Currently the patient is in stable condition admitted to a negative pressure room on a ward.
  2. A 51-year-old female national living in Alkharj city, Riyadh Region.
    • She developed symptoms on 22 September and was admitted to hospital on 27 September.
    • The patient who has comorbidities, tested positive for MERS-CoV on 29 September.
    • She has a history of contact with camels in the 14 days prior to the onset of symptoms.
    • Currently the patient is in stable condition admitted to a negative pressure room on a ward.
    • Ministry of Agriculture has been informed and investigation of camels is ongoing.
  3. A 52-year-old male national living in Wadi Ad-Dwaser city, Riyadh Region.
    • He developed symptoms on 12 September and was admitted to hospital on 19 September.
    • The patient who has comorbidities, tested positive for MERS-CoV on 22 September.
    • Investigation of history of exposure to the known risk factors in the 14 days prior to onset of symptoms is ongoing.
    • Currently the patient is in critical condition admitted to ICU but not on mechanical ventilation.
  4. A 43-year-old male non-national living in Riyadh city, Riyadh Region.
    • He developed symptoms on 15 September and was admitted to hospital on 22 September.
    • He tested positive for MERS-CoV on the same day.
    • The patient has no comorbid conditions.
    • Investigation of history of exposure to the known risk factors prior to the onset of symptoms in the 14 days is ongoing.
    • Currently the patient is in stable condition admitted to a negative pressure room on a ward.
  5. A 78-year-old female national and living in Skaka city, Aljouf Region.
    • She developed symptoms on 16 September and was admitted to hospital on 18 September.
    • The patient who has comorbidities, tested positive for MERS-CoV on 20 September.
    • She has a history of contact with camels and consumption of their raw milk in the 14 days prior to the onset of symptoms.
    • Currently the patient is in stable condition admitted to a negative pressure room on a ward.
    • Ministry of Agriculture has been informed and investigation of camels is ongoing.
  6. A 50-year-old male national living in Shaqra city, Riyadh Region.
    • He developed symptoms on 11 September and was admitted to hospital on 15 September.
    • The patient who has comorbidities, tested positive for MERS-CoV on 16 September.
    • He has a history of contact with camels and consumption of their raw milk in the 14 days prior to the onset of symptoms.
    • Currently the patient is in stable condition admitted to a negative pressure room on a ward.
    • Ministry of Agriculture has been informed and investigation of camels is ongoing.
  7. A 70-year-old male national living in Hail city, Hail Region.
    • He developed symptoms on 8 September and was admitted to a hospital on 13 September.
    • The patient who has comorbidities, tested positive for MERS-CoV on 15 September.
    • Investigation of history of exposure to the known risk factors is ongoing.
    • The patient was in stable condition admitted to a negative pressure room on a ward but his conditions deteriorated and he passed away on 27 September, 2016.

Contact tracing of household and healthcare contacts is ongoing for these cases.

Globally, since September 2012, WHO has been notified of 1813 laboratory-confirmed cases of infection with MERS-CoV including at least 645 related deaths have been reported to WHO.

 

WHO risk assessment

MERS-CoV causes severe human infections resulting in high mortality and has demonstrated the ability to transmit between humans. So far, the observed human-to-human transmission has occurred mainly in health care settings.

The notification of additional cases does not change the overall risk assessment. WHO expects that additional cases of MERS-CoV infection will be reported from the Middle East, and that cases will continue to be exported to other countries by individuals who might acquire the infection after exposure to animals or animal products (for example, following contact with dromedaries) or human source (for example, in a health care setting). WHO continues to monitor the epidemiological situation and conducts risk assessment based on the latest available information.

 

WHO advice

Based on the current situation and available information, WHO encourages all Member States to continue their surveillance for acute respiratory infections and to carefully review any unusual patterns.

Infection prevention and control measures are critical to prevent the possible spread of MERS-CoV in health care facilities. It is not always possible to identify patients with MERS-CoV early because like other respiratory infections, the early symptoms of MERS-CoV are non-specific. Therefore, health-care workers should always apply standard precautions consistently with all patients, regardless of their diagnosis. Droplet precautions should be added to the standard precautions when providing care to patients with symptoms of acute respiratory infection; contact precautions and eye protection should be added when caring for probable or confirmed cases of MERS-CoV infection; airborne precautions should be applied when performing aerosol generating procedures.

Until more is understood about MERS-CoV, people with diabetes, renal failure, chronic lung disease, and immunocompromised persons are considered to be at high risk of severe disease from MERS-CoV infection. Therefore, these people should avoid close contact with animals, particularly camels, when visiting farms, markets, or barn areas where the virus is known to be potentially circulating. General hygiene measures, such as regular hand washing before and after touching animals and avoiding contact with sick animals, should be adhered to.

Food hygiene practices should be observed. People should avoid drinking raw camel milk or camel urine, or eating meat that has not been properly cooked.

WHO does not advise special screening at points of entry with regard to this event nor does it currently recommend the application of any travel or trade restrictions.

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Keywords: MERS-CoV; Updates; Saudi Arabia; WHO.

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