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17 Sep 2016

#Indonesia, #Zika Virus: #PublicHealth #Notice (PHI, September 17 2016)


Title: #Indonesia, #Zika Virus: #PublicHealth #Notice.

Subject: Zika Virus, Letter to the Editor.

Source: Public Health Indonesia, full PDF file: (LINK).

Code: [     ]


Public Health of Indonesia / Tosepu R. / Public Health of Indonesia. 2016 September;2(3): 138-140 - 

ISSN: 2477-1570 / Letter to Editor


Ramadhan Tosepu*, Department of Environmental Health, Faculty of Public Health, Halu Oleo University, Indonesia

Accepted: 10 September 2016

*Correspondence: Ramadhan Tosepu, M.Kes, Department of Environmental Health, Faculty of Public Health, Halu Oleo University, Indonesia, E-mail :

Copyright: © the author(s), YCAB publisher and Public Health of Indonesia. This is an open-access article
distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License, which permits
unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is
properly cited.



A rapidly expanding outbreak of Zika virus infection is spreading in some countries, for instance, one case found

in French area of Saint Martin on 18 January 2016, another case was in Virgin Island of United States on 25 January 2016, ten cases in Dominican Republic that eight cases in local region and two imported cases from El Salvador. This virus disease also continues in Haiti, the Caribbean, and Germany. The World Health Organization (WHO) declared the Zika virus outbreak becomes a Public Health Emergency and International Concern.1 Thus, to understand Zika virus and its prevention are important.

The incubation of Zika virus remains unclear. It can last for several days to a week. Some people will not have symptoms or will only have mild symptoms.2 The symptoms are similar to other arboviral infections, such as dengue fever, conjunctivitis, joint pain, malaise, and headache. Virus Zika is diagnosed through PCR3 and the isolation of virus from blood samples.4 Serologic diagnosis might be difficult because the virus can cross-react with other flavi viruses, such as dengue fever and yellow fever.5

On the other hand, Zika viral disease is usually relatively mild and do not require special treatment.6 However, people sick with this virus should get plenty of rest; drink enough, to treat pain and fever with general medicine. If symptoms are worsen, they should seek medical care,7 but so far have not found a vaccine of this disease.

In line with that, to deal with Zika virus, community participation is necessary. It is an important step to work together to prevent the virus spreading in the community. It is simple, cheap, and easy step, such as the 3M Program in Indonesia, “Menguras, Menutup dan Mengubur” or 3C in English, which is mean CLEAN the bath up minimum twice a week with brush to prevent the mosquito lying eggs there, CLOSE all the water container, And Bury the tins so it will not become the place to mosquito to lying eggs (in our situation COLLECT and recycling it). In the other hand, the government also has key roles in intensifying surveillance, implementing vector control measures, as well as educating the public about the risks associated with the Zika virus and encouraging them to take any precautions against mosquito bites. Focus efforts to prevent and control should be employed by reducing mosquito breeding through source reduction, reducing contact between mosquitoes and humans, decreasing the number of open spaces that contain natural and artificial water that support mosquito larvae to breed, and reducing the adult mosquito population around the community.8 Mosquito netting is also needed as a mosquito inhibitor because Aedes mosquitoes have the time or certain hours of the bite. Thus, it is recommended that those who sleep during the day, like babies, children, the sick or elderly, should rest with the use of mosquito nets.

At-risk groups, such as tourists.5,9 They are required to have the knowledge and ability of basic precautions to protect themselves from mosquito bites. This step is considered very effective and assists the government in implementing disease control. In Thailand, this effort has been made with the establishment of rating diseases unit under the control of the Hospital for Tropical Diseases, Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University.

The tourists who visit Thailand must pass through a laser sensor mounted fever in Thailand international airport arrivals section. Travelers identified as having symptoms of a particular disease will be directed to go to the hospital. Cooperation between the parties has been going well, so that efforts to suppress the spread of the introduction of disease from country to country can be controlled.

For Indonesia, the national government through the Ministry of Health of Indonesia has issued a travel warning to citizens of Indonesia who will travel abroad, especially to countries experiencing extraordinary events of Zika virus, including Brazil, Cape Verde, Colombia, El Salvador, Honduras, Martinique, Panama, and Suriname; and the countries that have the status of active transmission, namely: Barbados, Bolivia, Curacao, The Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Fiji, French Guiana, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Mexico, New Caledonia, Nicaragua, Paraguay, Puerto Rico, Saint Martin, Samoa, Tonga, US Virgin Islands, and Venezuela.9

Last, to fight with the prevention of the distribution of Zika virus, Efforts to enhance health security to prevent, detect, and respond to Zika virus, as well as other emerging infections, require a sustained commitment and cooperation at all levels of government, the private sector, and civil society.



  1. WHO. Report of Zika Virus. 2016(January).
  2. Foy BD, Kobylinski KC, Chilson Foy JL, et al. Probable non-vectorborne transmission of Zika virus, Colorado, USA. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(5):880-882.
  3. Gourinat A-C, O’Connor O, Calvez E, Goarant C, Dupont-Rouzeyrol M. Detection of Zika virus in urine. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(1):84-86.
  4. Faye O, Freire CC, Iamarino A, et al. Molecular evolution of Zika virus during its emergence in the 20 th century. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2014;8(1):e2636.
  5. Tappe D, Nachtigall S, Kapaun A, Schnitzler P, Gunther S, Schmidt-Chanasit J. Acute Zika virus infection after travel to Malaysian Borneo, September 2014. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(5):911-913.
  6. Campos GS, Bandeira AC, Sardi SI. Zika virus outbreak, Bahia, Brazil. Emerging infectious diseases. 2015;21(10):1885.
  7. Zanluca C, Melo VCAd, Mosimann ALP, Santos GIVd, Santos CNDd, Luz K. First report of autochthonous transmission of Zika virus in Brazil. Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz. 2015;110(4):569-572.
  8. Richard T, Kristanto A, Adiwinata R, et al. Masalah Virus Zika pada Kehamilan. Cermin Dunia Kedokteran. 2016;43(5):346-351.
  9. Kemenkes. Travel Advisory of Virus Zika. 3 Febraury 2016(February).


Cite this article as: Tosepu R. Zika Virus: Public Health Notice. Public Health of Indonesia 2016; 2(3):138-140


Keywords: Indonesia; Updates; Zika Virus.