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Welcome to A Time's Memory Blog

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A TIME'S MEMORY - Flu, Bugs & Other Accidents Blog - Year: XIII - Here, Reader, you will find many items if your interests are in the field of emerging threats to global or public health, with a perspective that is not mainstream. Thank to You for the interest!

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14 Aug 2018

#Avian #Influenza [#H5N1, #H5N6, #H7N9] #Report - August 5 – 11 ‘18 (Wk 32) (#HK CHP, August 14, 2018)

          

Title:

#Avian #Influenza [#H5N1, #H5N6, #H7N9] #Report - August 5 – 11 ‘18 (Wk 32).

Subject:

Influenza A of Avian Origin, H5, H7 & H9 subtypes, global poultry panzootic and human cases in China & worldwide, weekly report.

Source:

Centre for Health Protection  (CHP), Hong Kong PRC SAR, full PDF file: (LINK).

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Keywords: HK PRC SAR; Updates; China; Worldwide; Human; Poultry; H5N1; H5N6; H7N9; Avian Influenza.

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#Polio case confirmed in Eastern Highlands Province, #Papua New Guinea (@WHO WPRO, August 14 ‘18)

          

Title:

#Polio case confirmed in Eastern Highlands Province, #Papua New Guinea.

Subject:

Acute Flaccid Paralysis (Poliovirus), reported case in Papua New Guinea, current situation.

Source:

World Health Organization (WHO), Regional Office for the Western Pacific, full page: (LINK).

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Risk of further spread of polio within the country is high


13 August 2018, PORT MORESBY

A new polio case was reported today by the National Department of Health of Papua New Guinea (NDOH) and the World Health Organization (WHO) in a 22-month old girl from Eastern Highlands Province.

This is the fourth case in the country, following confirmation of two cases from Morobe Province in June and July 2018 and a case from Enga in early August.

The confirmation was made on Friday, 10 August 2018 by the Victorian Infectious Disease Reference Laboratory—a WHO Collaborating Centre in Australia.

The girl had an onset of paralysis on 8 July. Based on initial laboratory results, this case is genetically linked to the current outbreak in the country.

The NDOH has enhanced surveillance system and continuously receives reports of suspected acute flaccid paralysis. To date, there are 65 suspected cases being investigated.

The identification of the case highlights the risk of polio in children under 5 years of age. Children can be protected from polio only with vaccination. Given substantial vaccination coverage gaps across the country, the risk of further spread of polio within the country continues to be classified as high.

The NDOH calls on parents to bring every child under 5 years of age to the nearest health center or vaccination point for polio drops during the next round of the polio campaign in August on the following schedules:

  • 20 August - 2 September 2018: Morobe, Madang and Eastern Highlands provinces
  • 27 August - 9 September 2018: Enga, Chimbu, Southern Highlands, Western Highlands, Jiwaka and Hela
  • September and October 2018: nationwide polio vaccination campaign

Children will need to receive multiple doses of oral polio vaccine, irrespective of previous immunization status. The vaccine is safe, free and has a unique ability to stop person-to-person spread of the virus.


Media Contacts

To request for media interview, please contact: 

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|-- Download joint media release pdf, 733kb –|

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Keywords: WHO; Updates; AFP; Poliovirus; Papua New Guinea.

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Early large increase in #WNV #infections reported in the #EU/EEA and EU neighbouring countries (@ECDC_EU, August 14 ‘18)

          

Title:

Early large increase in #WNV #infections reported in the #EU/EEA and EU neighbouring countries.

Subject:

WNV activity across European Region, early start of seasonal epidemic, risk assessment.

Source:

European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC), full page: (LINK). Summary, edited.

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Risk Assessment | 13 Aug 2018

The early occurrence of a large number of human West Nile virus (WNV) infections in EU/EEA Member States and EU neighbouring countries suggests a high level of virus circulation in affected countries, which could potentially result in a high number of cases during the coming months.


Executive summary

  • The majority of areas affected in 2018 were those from which cases were also reported between 2014 and 2017.
  • It is likely that the virus will spread to more areas in the coming months, including areas where no human autochthonous cases have been reported in previous years, hence affecting a population that is potentially immunologically na├»ve.
  • A WNV affected area is defined as an area at the third level of the Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics (NUTS 3) where at least one human case of autochthonous WNV transmission has been confirmed
  • Public health professionals and clinicians in affected areas and also in as yet unaffected areas with suitable environmental conditions should be aware of the ongoing situation in Europe and the need to ensure the early detection and reporting of cases, which is crucial for monitoring the situation and timely implementation of response measures.
  • It is also important to maintain collaboration between local, regional and national public health and veterinary authorities to obtain a comprehensive understanding of the epidemiological situation of WNV, assess the transmission risk to humans and consequently to implement timely response measures.
  • It is important that clinicians are reminded to include West Nile fever (WNF) in the differential diagnosis of persons who have returned from affected areas with symptoms compatible with the disease.
  • Personal protection from mosquito bites is advisable for any person residing in or visiting affected areas, especially the elderly and immunocompromised who are at higher risk of developing West Nile neuroinvasive disease (WNND).
  • Personal protective measures to reduce the risk of mosquito bites include the use of mosquito repellent in accordance with instructions indicated on the product label and wearing long-sleeved shirts and long trousers.
  • In addition, window and door screens can keep mosquitoes out.
  • To prevent transfusion-transmitted WNV infection, EU/EEA countries should implement 28-day blood donor deferral or individual donation nucleic acid testing (ID-NAT) of prospective donors who have visited, or live in, an affected area.
  • In affected areas, blood establishments should follow recommendations provided in the EU preparedness plan for blood safety.
  • Donors of organs, tissues and cells living in or returning from an affected area should be tested for WNV infection.
  • Systematic collection of epidemiological information on WNV infection among donors and recipients of substances of human origin (SoHO) is an important tool for national authorities to better assess the risk of transmission and the impact of preventive measures on the availability of SoHO.


Download: |-- West Nile fever risk assessment early season 2018 - EN - [PDF-637.75 KB] –|

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Keywords: WNV; European Region; EU; Updates; ECDC.

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13 Aug 2018

#Zika #Virus #Research #References #Library–August 13 2018 #Update, Issue No. 129

          

Title:

#Zika #Virus #Research #References #Library–August 13 2018 #Update, Issue No. 129.

Subject:

Zika Virus Infection and related complications research, weekly references library update.

Source:

AMEDEO, homepage: http://www.amedeo.com

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  1. NIKOLAY A, Leon A, Schwamborn K, Genzel Y, et al.
    • Process intensification of EB66(R) cell cultivations leads to high-yield yellow fever and Zika virus production.
      • Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2018 Aug 8. pii: 10.1007/s00253-018-9275.
  2. MOREIRA-SOTO A, Cabral R, Pedroso C, Eschbach-Bludau M, et al.
    • Exhaustive TORCH Pathogen Diagnostics Corroborate Zika Virus Etiology of Congenital Malformations in Northeastern Brazil.
      • mSphere. 2018;3.
  3. MUDD J, Hollins A, Ashton S, Gair R, et al.
    • Zika prevention: lessons from the Australian front line.
      • Aust N Z J Public Health. 2018 Aug 8. doi: 10.1111/1753-6405.12814.
  4. LUCAS CGO, Kitoko JZ, Ferreira FM, Suzart VG, et al.
    • Critical role of CD4(+) T cells and IFNgamma signaling in antibody-mediated resistance to Zika virus infection.
      • Nat Commun. 2018;9:3136.
  5. HERRERA BB, Tsai WY, Brites C, Luz E, et al.
    • T Cell Responses to Nonstructural Protein 3 Distinguish Infections by Dengue and Zika Viruses.
      • MBio. 2018;9.
  6. THOMPSON CN, Lee CT, Immerwahr S, Resnick S, et al.
    • Sampling considerations for a potential Zika virus urosurvey in New York City.
      • Epidemiol Infect. 2018 Aug 8:1-7. doi: 10.1017/S0950268818002236.
  7. MAJUMDER MS, Hess R, Ross R, Piontkivska H, et al.
    • Seasonality of birth defects in West Africa: could congenital Zika syndrome be to blame?
      • F1000Res. 2018;7:159.
  8. WATANABE S, Tan NWW, Chan KWK, Vasudevan SG, et al.
    • Dengue and Zika Virus Serological Cross-reactivity and their Impact on Pathogenesis in Mice.
      • J Infect Dis. 2018 Aug 2. pii: 5064258. doi: 10.1093.
  9. CASAPULLA SL, Aidoo-Frimpong G, Basta TB, Grijalva MJ, et al.
    • Zika virus knowledge and attitudes in Ecuador.
      • AIMS Public Health. 2018;5:49-63.
  10. LI C, Wang Q, Jiang Y, Ye Q, et al.
    • Disruption of glial cell development by Zika virus contributes to severe microcephalic newborn mice.
      • Cell Discov. 2018;4:43.
  11. SAKKAS H, Bozidis P, Giannakopoulos X, Sofikitis N, et al.
    • An Update on Sexual Transmission of Zika Virus.
      • Pathogens. 2018;7.
  12. HILL ME, Kumar A, Wells JA, Hobman TC, et al.
    • The unique cofactor region of Zika virus NS2B-NS3 protease facilitates cleavage of key host proteins.
      • ACS Chem Biol. 2018 Aug 6. doi: 10.1021/acschembio.8b00508.
  13. ERASMUS JH, Khandhar AP, Guderian J, Granger B, et al.
    • A Nanostructured Lipid Carrier for Delivery of a Replicating Viral RNA Provides Single, Low-Dose Protection against Zika.
      • Mol Ther. 2018 Aug 2. pii: S1525-0016(18)30317.
  14. LI A, Yu J, Lu M, Ma Y, et al.
    • A Zika virus vaccine expressing premembrane-envelope-NS1 polyprotein.
      • Nat Commun. 2018;9:3067.
  15. STODDARD PK.
    • Managing Aedes aegypti populations in the first Zika transmission zones in the continental United States.
      • Acta Trop. 2018;187:108-118.
  16. AVELINO-SILVA VI, Kallas EG.
    • Untold stories of the Zika virus epidemic in Brazil.
      • Rev Med Virol. 2018 Aug 3:e2000. doi: 10.1002/rmv.2000.
  17. BEAVER JT, Lelutiu N, Habib R, Skountzou I, et al.
    • Evolution of Two Major Zika Virus Lineages: Implications for Pathology, Immune Response, and Vaccine Development.
      • Front Immunol. 2018;9:1640.
  18. REGLA-NAVA JA, Elong Ngono A, Viramontes KM, Huynh AT, et al.
    • Cross-reactive Dengue virus-specific CD8(+) T cells protect against Zika virus during pregnancy.
      • Nat Commun. 2018;9:3042.
  19. DEL CARPIO-ORANTES L, Peniche Moguel KG, Sanchez Diaz JS, Pola-Ramirez MDR, et al.
    • Guillain-Barre syndrome associated with Zika virus infection: Analysis of a cohort from the region of northern Veracruz in 2016-2017.
      • Neurologia. 2018 Jul 30. pii: S0213-4853(18)30173.
  20. DEL CARPIO ORANTES L.
    • Guillain-Barre syndrome associated with zika virus infection in the Americas: A bibliometric study.
      • Neurologia. 2018 Jul 30. pii: S0213-4853(18)30171.
  21. MCDONALD EM, Duggal NK, Ritter JM, Brault AC, et al.
    • Infection of epididymal epithelial cells and leukocytes drives seminal shedding of Zika virus in a mouse model.
      • PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2018;12:e0006691.
  22. CHU V, Petersen LR, Moore CA, Meaney-Delman D, et al.
    • Possible Congenital Zika Syndrome in Older Children Due to Earlier Circulation of Zika Virus.
      • Am J Med Genet A. 2018 Aug 2. doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.40378.
  23. BRITO KGDS, Dos Santos EB, Lucas LDSM, Orsini M, et al.
    • Prevalence of neurological complications associated with Zika virus in a brazilian metropolis.
      • Neurol Int. 2018;10:7638.
  24. PUGLIESE A, Gumel AB, Milner FA, Velasco-Hernandez JX, et al.
    • Sex-biased prevalence in infections with heterosexual, direct, and vector-mediated transmission: A theoretical analysis.
      • Math Biosci Eng. 2018;15:125-140.
    • Ethics, pregnancy, and ZIKV vaccine research & development.
      • Vaccine. 2017 Oct 19. pii: S0264-410X(17)31318.
  25. FRENKEL LD, Gomez F, Sabahi F.
    • The pathogenesis of microcephaly resulting from congenital infections: why is my baby's head so small?
      • Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2018;37:209-226.
  26. PAN T, Peng Z, Tan L, Zou F, et al.
    • Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs) Potently Inhibit the Replication of Zika Viruses by Inducing the Degradation of AXL.
      • J Virol. 2018 Aug 1. pii: JVI.01018-18. doi: 10.1128/JVI.01018.
  27. RICE ME, Galang RR, Roth NM, Ellington SR, et al.
    • Vital Signs: Zika-Associated Birth Defects and Neurodevelopmental Abnormalities Possibly Associated with Congenital Zika Virus Infection - U.S. Territories and Freely Associated States, 2018.
      • MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2018;67:858-867.
  28. POLEN KD, Gilboa SM, Hills S, Oduyebo T, et al.
    • Update: Interim Guidance for Preconception Counseling and Prevention of Sexual Transmission of Zika Virus for Men with Possible Zika Virus Exposure - United States, August 2018.
      • MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2018;67:868-871.
  29. MENDONCA MCL, Mares-Guia MA, Rodrigues CDDS, Santos CCD, et al.
    • Imported case of Dengue virus 3 genotype I in Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil.
      • Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2018;113:e180036.

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Keywords: Research; Abstracts; Zika References Library.

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Highly pathogenic #avian #influenza #H5, #Taiwan [four #poultry #outbreaks] (#OIE, August 13 ‘18)

          

Title:

Highly pathogenic #avian #influenza #H5, #Taiwan [four #poultry #outbreaks].

Subject:

Avian Influenza, H5 subtype, poultry epizootics in Taiwan.

Source:

OIE, full page: (LINK).

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Information received on 13/08/2018 from Dr Tai-Hwa Shih, Chief Veterinary Officer, Deputy Director General, Bureau of Animal and Plant Health Inspection and Quarantine Council of Agriculture Executive Yuan, Ministry of Agriculture, Taipei, Chinese Taipei

  • Summary
    • Report type    Immediate notification
    • Date of start of the event    12/01/2018
    • Date of confirmation of the event    17/01/2018
    • Report date    13/08/2018
    • Date submitted to OIE    13/08/2018
    • Reason for notification    Recurrence of a listed disease
    • Date of previous occurrence    2018
    • Manifestation of disease    Clinical disease
    • Causal agent    Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus
    • Serotype    H5
    • Nature of diagnosis    Clinical, Laboratory (basic), Laboratory (advanced)
    • This event pertains to    a defined zone within the country
  • New outbreaks
    • Summary of outbreaks   
      • Total outbreaks: 4
        • Outbreak Location - Pingtung County ( Jiadong Township ) | Yunlin County ( Xiluo Township Huwei Township Citong Township )
          • Total animals affected:    Species    - Susceptible    - Cases    - Deaths    - Killed and disposed of    - Slaughtered
            • Birds     - 60591     - 230 **     - 230     - 60361     - 0
      • Outbreak statistics:    Species    - Apparent morbidity rate    - Apparent mortality rate    - Apparent case fatality rate    - Proportion susceptible animals lost*
        • Birds    - **    - 0.38%    - **    - 100.00%
          • * Removed from the susceptible population through death, destruction and/or slaughter;
  • Epidemiology
    • Source of the outbreak(s) or origin of infection   
      • Unknown or inconclusive
  • Epidemiological comments   
    • One layer farm in Pingtung County, one layer farm and one duck farm in Yunlin County were sampled by the local Livestock Disease Control Centre (LDCC) in the process of intensified surveillance around infected holdings.
    • Another chicken farm in Yunlin County was reported by the owner and was sampled by the LDCC.
    • These samples had been sent to the National Laboratory, Animal Health Research Institute (AHRI) for analysis.
    • Highly pathogenic avian influenza H5 subtype was confirmed by AHRI on 17 January, 10 February, 8 July and 20 April in 2018.
    • These farms have been placed under movement restriction.
    • All animals in these infected farms have been culled.
    • Thorough cleaning and disinfection have been conducted after stamping out operation.
    • Surrounding poultry farms within a three-kilometer radius of the infected farms are under intensified surveillance for three months.
  • Control measures
    • Measures applied   
      • Movement control inside the country
      • Surveillance outside containment and/or protection zone
      • Surveillance within containment and/or protection zone
      • Quarantine
      • Official disposal of carcasses, by-products and waste
      • Stamping out
      • Disinfection
      • Ante and post-mortem inspections
      • Vaccination prohibited
      • No treatment of affected animals
    • Measures to be applied   
      • No other measures
  • Diagnostic test results
    • Laboratory name and type    - Animal Health Research Institute ( National laboratory )
      • Tests and results:    Species    - Test    - Test date    - Result
        • Birds    - reverse transcription - polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)    - 17/01/2018    - Positive
        • Birds    - reverse transcription - polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)    - 10/02/2018    - Positive
        • Birds    - reverse transcription - polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)    - 20/04/2018    - Positive
        • Birds    - reverse transcription - polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)    - 08/07/2018    - Positive
  • Future Reporting
    • The event is continuing. Weekly follow-up reports will be submitted.

(...)

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Keywords: OIE; Updates; Avian Influenza; H5 ; Poultry; Taiwan.

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12 Aug 2018

#Influenza and other #Respiratory #Viruses #Research #References #Library – August 12 2018 Issue

          

Title:

#Influenza and other #Respiratory #Viruses #Research #References #Library – August 12 2018 Issue.

Subject:

Human and Animal Influenza Viruses, other respiratory pathogens research, weekly references library update.

Source:

AMEDEO, homepage: http://www.amedeo.com

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This Issue:

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  1. BRODSKAIA AV, Timin AS, Gorshkov AN, Muslimov AR, et al.
    • Inhibition of influenza A virus by mixed siRNAs, targeting the PA, NP, and NS genes, delivered by hybrid microcarriers.
      • Antiviral Res. 2018 Aug 6. pii: S0166-3542(17)30732.
  2. GARG R, Brownlie R, Latimer L, Gerdts V, et al.
    • A chimeric glycoprotein formulated with a combination adjuvant induces protective immunity against both human respiratory syncytial virus and parainfluenza virus type 3.
      • Antiviral Res. 2018;158:78-87.
  3. FOX A, Quinn KM, Subbarao K.
    • Extending the Breadth of Influenza Vaccines: Status and Prospects for a Universal Vaccine.
      • Drugs. 2018 Aug 7. pii: 10.1007/s40265-018-0958.
  4. LAMBERTZ RLO, Pippel J, Gerhauser I, Kollmus H, et al.
    • Exchange of amino acids in the H1-haemagglutinin to H3 residues is required for efficient influenza A virus replication and pathology in Tmprss2 knock-out mice.
      • J Gen Virol. 2018 Aug 6. doi: 10.1099/jgv.0.001128.
  5. GUO F, Luo T, Pu Z, Xiang D, et al.
    • Increasing the potential ability of human infections in H5N6 avian influenza A viruses.
      • J Infect. 2018 Aug 2. pii: S0163-4453(18)30242.
  6. MAIER HE, Lopez R, Sanchez N, Ng S, et al.
    • Obesity Increases the Duration of Influenza A Virus Shedding in Adults.
      • J Infect Dis. 2018 Aug 2. pii: 5051913. doi: 10.1093.
  7. LOY H, Kuok DIT, Hui KPY, Choi MHL, et al.
    • Therapeutic implications of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stromal cells in attenuating influenza A/H5N1-associated acute lung injury.
      • J Infect Dis. 2018 Aug 2. pii: 5064213. doi: 10.1093.
  8. SCHULTZ-CHERRY S.
    • Beyond Disease Severity: The Impact of Obesity on Influenza A Virus Shedding.
      • J Infect Dis. 2018 Aug 2. pii: 5051914. doi: 10.1093.
  9. DU W, Dai M, Li Z, Boons GJ, et al.
    • Substrate binding by the 2(nd) sialic acid-binding site of influenza A virus N1 neuraminidase contributes to enzymatic activity.
      • J Virol. 2018 Aug 8. pii: JVI.01243-18. doi: 10.1128/JVI.01243.
  10. KIM YJ, Kim KH, Ko EJ, Kim MC, et al.
    • Complement C3 Plays a Key Role in Inducing Humoral and Cellular Immune Responses to Influenza Virus Strain Specific HA or Cross Protective M2e vaccination.
      • J Virol. 2018 Aug 1. pii: JVI.00969-18. doi: 10.1128/JVI.00969.
  11. UYEKI TM, Fowler RA, Fischer WA 2nd.
    • Gaps in the Clinical Management of Influenza: A Century Since the 1918 Pandemic.
      • JAMA. 2018 Jul 30. pii: 2695951. doi: 10.1001/jama.2018.8113.
  12. SHINJOH M, Sugaya N, Yamaguchi Y, Iibuchi N, et al.
    • Inactivated influenza vaccine effectiveness and an analysis of repeated vaccination for children during the 2016/17 season.
      • Vaccine. 2018 Aug 6. pii: S0264-410X(18)31074.
  13. WU S, Pan Y, Zhang X, Zhang L, et al.
    • Influenza vaccine effectiveness in preventing laboratory-confirmed influenza in outpatient settings: A test-negative case-control study in Beijing, China, 2016/17 season.
      • Vaccine. 2018 Aug 4. pii: S0264-410X(18)31097.
  14. YEUNG KHT, Tarrant M, Chan KCC, Tam WH, et al.
    • Increasing influenza vaccine uptake in children: A randomised controlled trial.
      • Vaccine. 2018 Aug 2. pii: S0264-410X(18)31075.
  15. THOMPSON MG, Pierse N, Sue Huang Q, Prasad N, et al.
    • Influenza vaccine effectiveness in preventing influenza-associated intensive care admissions and attenuating severe disease among adults in New Zealand 2012-2015.
      • Vaccine. 2018 Aug 1. pii: S0264-410X(18)30997.
  16. ORTQVIST A, Brytting M, Leval A, Hergens MP, et al.
    • Impact of repeated influenza vaccinations in persons over 65years of age: A large population-based cohort study of severe influenza over six consecutive seasons, 2011/12-2016/17.
      • Vaccine. 2018 Jul 31. pii: S0264-410X(18)31046.
  17. SUTTIE A, Karlsson EA, Deng YM, Horm SV, et al.
    • Influenza A(H5N1) viruses with A(H9N2) single gene (matrix or PB1) reassortment isolated from Cambodian live bird markets.
      • Virology. 2018;523:22-26.

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Keywords: Research; Abstracts; Influenza References Library.

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#WHO calls for free and #secure #access in responding to #Ebola #outbreak in the #DRC (@WHO AFRO, August 12 ‘18)

          

Title:

#WHO calls for free and #secure #access in responding to #Ebola #outbreak in the #DRC.

Subject:

Ebola Virus Disease Outbreak in the Dem. Rep. of Congo, civil unrests in the affected areas, current situation.

Source:

World Health Organization (WHO), Office for Africa Region, full page: (LINK).

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BENI/BRAZZAVILLE 12 August 2018


WHO’s global and African regional leadership saw first-hand the complexities of implementing the Ebola response in North Kivu in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, in visits with the Ministry of Health officials to affected areas over the last two days. While this is the country’s 10th Ebola outbreak, it is the first time that the disease has struck a densely populated active conflict zone.

“WHO is calling for free and secure access by all responders to the affected populations,” said Dr Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus, WHO Director-General.

“All of those participating in the response must be able to move freely and safely in conflict areas to do the work that is needed to bring the outbreak under control. The population must also have access to treatment centers that save lives and stop the spread of disease.”

As was done in the recent outbreak in the west of the country, WHO is supporting the Ministry of Health in key aspects of the response.

A little more than a week since the government declared the new Ebola outbreak, Dr Tedros, Dr Matshidiso Moeti, WHO Regional Director for Africa and Dr Peter Salama, WHO Deputy Director-General, Emergency Preparedness and Response went on a two day mission to the city of Beni and to the Mangina health area in North Kivu. Mangina, which is 30 km from Beni, lies at the epicenter of the epidemic and accounts for most of the confirmed cases so far.

A range of armed groups are active in the area and this insecurity creates a challenge for health teams needing to go deep into communities to actively find cases and then monitor them twice a day for three weeks. It can also discourage members of the community from coming forward for treatment.

“WHO has vast experience with delivering health services in conflict zones in Africa,” said Dr Moeti.

“We will build on this experience to ensure that our staff and partners can do their work and save the lives of the people we are here to help.”

Together with the Minister of Health, Dr Oly Ilunga, the WHO delegation observed the launch of the Ebola vaccination for health workers in the Beni reference hospital.

They also visited the Emergency Operations Centre in Beni, which was built and provided to partners by the UN mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, known as MONUSCO.

They met with partners and staff to discuss the challenges ahead, and to take stock of what has already been put in place, including treatment centers run by partners, outreach to communities, a review of infection prevention and control in health centres, and reinforcement to the surveillance system.

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Keywords: WHO; Updates; Ebola; DRC.

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11 Aug 2018

#China, #Influenza [#H1N1pdm09, #H3N2, B, #H7N9] Weekly #Report - Wk 31 ‘18 (CNIC, August 11 ‘18)

          

Title:

#China, #Influenza [#H1N1pdm09, #H3N2, B, #H7N9] Weekly #Report - Wk 31 ‘18.

Subject:

Human and Animal Influenza Viruses, H1, H3 & H7 subtypes, current epidemiological situation in China.

Source:

National Influenza Centre, PR of China, full page: (LINK).

Code:

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(All data are preliminary and may change as more reports are received)


Summary

  • During week 31, there was no influenza activity in northern provinces of mainland China, only a few influenza viruses can be detected in southern provinces, the majority were A(H1N1)pdm09.
  • Among influenza viruses antigenically characterized by CNIC since October 1st, 2017:
    • 687(94.1%) influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses were characterized as A/Michigan/45/2015-like;
    • 116(31.8%) influenza A(H3N2) viruses were characterized as A/Hong Kong/4801/2014 (H3N2)(EGG)-like,
    • 330(90.4%) influenza A(H3N2) viruses were characterized as A/Hong Kong/4801/2014 (H3N2)(CELL)-like;
    • 162(59.3%) influenza B/Victoria viruses were characterized as B/Brisbane/60/2008-like;
    • 839(97.4%) influenza B/Yamagata viruses were characterized as B/Phuket/3073/2013-like.
  • Among the influenza viruses tested by CNIC for antiviral resistance analysis since October 1st, 2017:
    • all influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 and A(H3N2) viruses were resistant to amantadine;
    • All influenza A(H3N2) and B viruses were sensitive to neuraminidase inhibitors.
    • All but 2 influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 were sensitive to neuraminidase inhibitors.


Outbreak Surveillance

  • During week 31 (July 30th –August 5th, 2018), there was no outbreak reported nationwide.


Surveillance of outpatient or emergency visits for Influenza-like Illness (ILI)

  • During week 31, the percentage of outpatient or emergency visits for ILI (ILI %) at national sentinel hospitals in southern provinces was 3.0%, lower than the last week and the same week of 2015 and 2017 (3.1%, 3.8%, 3.5%), higher than the same week of 2016 (2.8%). (Figure 1)
  • During week 31, ILI% at national sentinel hospitals in northern provinces was 2.1%, lower than the last week and the same week of 2015-2017 (2.2%, 2.4%, 2.3%, 2.5%). (Figure 2)

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Figure 1. Percentage of Visits for ILI at Sentinel Hospitalsin Southern Provinces  (2015-2019)

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Figure 2. Percentage of Visits for ILI at Sentinel Hospitals in Northern Provinces (2015-2019)

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Virologic Surveillance

  • During week 31, influenza network laboratories tested 3937 specimens, of which 30(0.8%) were positive for influenza, influenza A and influenza B viruses were 28(93.3%) and 2(6.7%), respectively (Table 1).
  • During week 31, the percentage of specimens that were tested positive for influenza in south China was 1.0%, which was lower than the previous week (1.5%) (Figure 3).
  • During week 31, there was no specimen that was tested positive for influenza in north China. (Figure 4).


Table 1 Laboratory Detections of ILI Specimens (Week 31, 2018)

[Week 31 - South China - North China – Total]

  • No. of specimens tested – 3156 – 781 – 3937
    • No. of positive specimens (%) - 30(1.0%) - 0(0) - 30(0.8%)
      • Influenza A - 28(93.3%) - 0(0) - 28(93.3%)
        • A(H3N2) - 0(0) - 0(0) - 0(0)
        • A(H1N1)pdm09 - 28(100%) - 0(0) - 28(100%)
        • A (subtype not determined) - 0(0) - 0(0) - 0(0)
      • Influenza B - 2(6.7%) - 0(0) - 2(6.7%)
        • B (lineage not determined) - 0(0) - 0(0) - 0(0)
        • Victoria - 0(0) - 0(0) - 0(0)
        • Yamagata - 2(100%) - 0(0)  - 2(100%)

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Figure 3. Influenza Positive Tests Reported by Southern Network Laboratories (Week 14, 2017–Week 31, 2018)

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Note: Analysis in this part was based on the test results of network laboratories. If it were not consistent with the results of CNIC confirmation, the results of CNIC confirmation were used.

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Figure 4. Influenza Positive Tests Reported by Northern Network Laboratories (Week 14, 2017–Week 31, 2018)

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Note: Analysis in this part was based on the result of network laboratories. If it were not consistent with the results of CNIC confirmation, the results of CNIC confirmation were used.

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H7N9 case report

  • Since the notification of human infection with novel reassortant influenza A(H7N9) virus on 31 March 2013, in total 1564 laboratory-confirmed cases have been reported to WHO.
  • Among them, 32 cases were infected with HPAI A(H7N9) virus, which have mutations in the hemagglutin in gene indicating a change to high pathogenicity in poultry.
  • These 32 cases are from Taiwan (the case had travel history to Guangdong), Guangxi, Guangdong, Hunan, Shaanxi, Hebei, Henan, Fujian, Yunnan provinces, with illness onset date before October 2017.
  • No increased transmissibility or virulence to human case was detected in the HPAI A(H7N9) virus.

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Keywords: China; Updates; Seasonal Influenza; Avian Influenza; H1N1pdm09; H3N2; B; H7N9.

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#Influenza A #H1N2 variant identified by #CDC in #Michigan residents with exposure to #swine (DoH, August 11 ‘18)

          

Title:

#Influenza A #H1N2 variant identified by #CDC in #Michigan residents with exposure to #swine.

Subject:

Influenza A of Swine Origin, H1N2 subtype, human cases in Michigan.

Source:

US State of Michigan Department of Health, full page: (LINK).

Code:

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FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE: Aug. 10, 2018 |CONTACT: Lynn Sutfin, 517-241-2112


LANSING, Mich. – The Michigan Department of Health and Human Services (MDHHS) is reporting that Influenza A (H1N2)v has been identified as the strain that sickened two attendees of the Fowlerville Family Fair following exposure to swine.

Respiratory samples from ill individuals were sent to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) for additional testing, after initially testing positive for Influenza A at the MDHHS Laboratory last week. This H1N2v strain is similar to the viruses currently circulating in swine.

These are among the first influenza A (H1N2)v virus infections identified in the U.S. in 2018.

Two additional cases have been identified in California.

None of the patients were hospitalized, and all are recovering from their illness.

No human-to-human transmission has been identified to date. Investigation of additional ill fair attendees is ongoing.

Since reporting of novel influenza A viruses began nationally in 2005, only 17 human infections of influenza A (H1N2)v – including these two Michigan cases – have been reported to CDC.

Swine influenza is a respiratory disease in pigs caused by type A influenza viruses that regularly circulate among swine. Swine influenza viruses do not usually infect humans, but human infections have been reported. People cannot get swine influenza from eating properly prepared pork or handling pork products – only from contact with an ill pig.

The fair took place July 23-28, and several pigs from the fair tested positive for swine influenza on July 27.

Symptoms of swine influenza in people are similar to the seasonal flu and can include fever, cough, runny nose, and sometimes body aches, nausea, vomiting or diarrhea. On rare occasions, swine influenza in humans can lead to severe diseases, such as pneumonia or death.

Those at higher risk of developing complications if they get swine influenza include children younger than five years of age, people 65 years of age and older, pregnant women and people with certain chronic health issues, such as asthma, diabetes, heart disease, weakened immune systems and neurological conditions.

Currently, there is no vaccine for swine influenza, and the seasonal flu vaccine will not protect against it. However, antiviral drugs, such as Tamiflu and Relenza, are effective in treating swine influenza. Early treatment works best and may be especially important for people with a high-risk condition.

Steps you can take to protect yourself and prevent the spread of any illness:

  • Refrain from eating or drinking in livestock barns or show rings.

  • Do not take toys, pacifiers, cups, baby bottles, strollers or similar items into pig areas.

  • Anyone who is at high risk of serious flu complications and is planning to attend a fair should avoid pigs and swine barns.

  • Avoid touching your eyes, nose and mouth. Germs spread this way.

  • Avoid contact with pigs if you have flu-like symptoms.

  • If you are sick, stay home from work or school until your illness is over.

  • Avoid close contact with sick people.

  • Cover your nose and mouth with a tissue when you cough or sneeze. Throw the tissue in the trash after you use it and wash your hands.

  • Wash your hands often with soap and water. If soap and water are not available, use an alcohol-based hand sanitizer.

For more information on minimizing the transmission of illness at livestock exhibitions, visit the USDA website. For more information on swine influenza, visit the CDC website.

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Keywords: USA; Updates; Michigan; Swine Influenza; Human; H1N2v.

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10 Aug 2018

Novel #Influenza A [#H1N2v] Virus, #Human Cases reported in the #US (@CDCgov, August 10 ‘18)

          

Title:

Novel #Influenza A [#H1N2v] Virus, #Human Cases reported in the #US.

Subject:

Influenza A of Swine Origin, H1N2 subtypes, human infection in the US.

Source:

US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), full page: (LINK). Extract, edited.

Code:

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Summary


Four human infections with novel influenza A viruses were reported by two states (California [2] and Michigan [2]).

All four persons were infected with an influenza A(H1N2) variant (A(H1N2)v) virus and reported direct exposure to swine at an agricultural fair during the week preceding illness onset.

All four patients were children < 18 years of age, were not hospitalized, and are recovering or have fully recovered from their illness.

No human-to-human transmission has been identified.

These are the first A(H1N2)v virus infections detected in the United States in 2018.

Early identification and investigation of human infections with novel influenza A viruses are critical so that the risk of infection can be more fully understood and appropriate public health measures can be taken.

Additional information on influenza in swine, variant influenza infection in humans, and strategies to interact safely with swine can be found at http://www.cdc.gov/flu/swineflu/index.htm.

Additional information regarding human infections with novel influenza A viruses can be found at http://gis.cdc.gov/grasp/fluview/Novel_Influenza.html.

(…)

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Keywords: US CDC; USA; Updates; Swine Influenza; H1N2v; Human; Michigan; California.

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