Welcome to A Time's Memory Blog

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A TIME'S MEMORY - Flu, Bugs & Other Accidents Blog - Year: XIII - Here, Reader, you will find many items if your interests are in the field of emerging threats to global or public health, with a perspective that is not mainstream. Thank to You for the interest!

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20 Sep 2018

Asian Lineage #Avian #Influenza A (#H7N9) Virus–Sept. 20 ‘18 #Update (@CDCgov, edited)

          

Title:

Asian Lineage #Avian #Influenza A (#H7N9) Virus–Sept. 20 ‘18 #Update.

Subject:

Avian Influenza, H7N9 subtypes, poultry enzootic and human cases in China, current situation.

Source:

US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), full page: (LINK).

Code:

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Background

  • Human infections with an Asian lineage avian influenza A (H7N9) virus (“Asian H7N9”) were first reported in China in March 2013.
  • Annual epidemics of sporadic human infections with Asian H7N9 viruses in China have been reported since that time.
  • China is currently experiencing its 6th epidemic of Asian H7N9 human infections.
  • Since October 1, 2017, there have been only 3 reported human infections.
  • During the fifth epidemic, from October 1, 2016 through September 30, 2017, the World Health Organization (WHO) reported 766 human infections with Asian H7N9 virus, making it the largest H7N9 epidemic to date.
  • As of December 7, 2017, the total cumulative number of human infections with Asian lineage H7N9 reported by WHO since 2013 is 1565.
  • During epidemics one through five, about 39 percent of people confirmed with Asian H7N9 virus infection died.


Epidemiology

  • Most human infections with avian influenza viruses, including Asian H7N9 virus, occur after exposure to infected poultry or contaminated environments.
  • Asian H7N9 viruses continue to circulate in poultry in China.
  • Most reported patients with H7N9 virus infection have had severe respiratory illness (e.g., pneumonia).
  • Rare instances of limited person-to-person spread of this virus have been identified in China, but there is no evidence of sustained person-to-person spread.
  • Some human infections with Asian H7N9 virus have been reported outside of mainland China, Hong Kong or Macao but all of these infections have occurred among people who had traveled to China before becoming ill.
  • Asian H7N9 viruses have not been detected in people or birds in the United States.


CDC Risk Assessment

  • While the current risk to the public’s health posed by Asian H7N9 virus is low, the pandemic potential of this virus is concerning.
  • Influenza viruses constantly change and it is possible that this virus could gain the ability to spread easily and sustainably among people, triggering a global outbreak of disease (i.e., a pandemic).
  • In fact, of the novel influenza A viruses that are of special concern to public health, Asian lineage H7N9 virus is rated by the Influenza Risk Assessment Tool as having the greatest potential to cause a pandemic, as well as potentially posing the greatest risk to severely impact public health if it were to achieve sustained human-to-human transmission.
  • It is likely that sporadic human infections with Asian H7N9 virus associated with exposure to infected poultry will continue to occur in China.
  • There is also a possibility of Asian H7N9 virus spreading to poultry in neighboring countries and human infections associated with poultry exposure may be detected in neighboring countries.
  • Asian H7N9 infections may continue to be detected among travelers returning from countries where this virus is present.
  • However, as long as there is no evidence of ongoing, sustained person-to-person spread, the public health risk assessment would not change substantially.


CDC Response

  • The U.S. Government supports international surveillance for seasonal and novel influenza viruses in humans, including Asian H7N9.
  • CDC collaborates with clinical and public health laboratories located in all 50 U.S. states and >100 countries.
  • In the United States, public health laboratories routinely test human respiratory specimens for influenza and report weekly those results to CDC.
  • Any suspected novel influenza A virus, including an Asian H7N9, detected at a U.S. public health laboratory is forwarded to CDC for confirmatory testing.
  • CDC is following the Asian H7N9 situation closely and is coordinating with domestic and international partners.
  • CDC takes routine preparedness actions to counter pandemic threats as they are identified, including developing candidate vaccine viruses (CVVs) to use for vaccine production in case vaccine is needed.
  • CDC has prepared a risk assessment of the Asian H7N9 virus.
  • Other routine preparedness activities include ongoing review of new viruses and virus sequences to assess their genetic and antigenic properties as well as their antiviral susceptibility.
  • This information informs an ongoing risk assessment process, which guides further actions.
  • CDC also has issued guidance to clinicians and public health authorities in the United States, as well as provided information for people traveling to China.
  • CDC will provide updated information as it becomes available.

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Asian H7N9 Outbreak Characterization

An influenza A H7N9 virus as viewed through an electron microscope. Both filaments and spheres are observed in these photos.

  • Asian H7N9 virus infections in poultry in China
  • Sporadic infections in people; most with poultry exposure
  • Rare limited person-to-person spread
  • No sustained or community transmission

H7N9: What should I do?

  • CDC does not have any new or special recommendations for the U.S. public at this time regarding H7N9. CDC will keep you updated. Stay informed.
  • Since Asian H7N9 is not spreading easily from person to person at this time, CDC does not recommend that people delay or cancel trips to China. The World Health Organization also is watching this situation closely and does not recommend any travel restrictions.
  • CDC advises travelers to China to take some common sense precautions, like not touching birds and washing hands often. Poultry and poultry products should be fully cooked. CDC will update its advice for travelers if the situation in China changes. This guidance is available at Avian Flu (H7N9) in China.

Recently Reported

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Keywords: US CDC; USA; Updates; H7N9; Avian Influenza; Human; China.

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#HK, Suspected #MERS #Coronavirus case reported (CHP, Sept. 20 ‘18)

          

Title:

#HK, Suspected #MERS #Coronavirus case reported.

Subject:

Middle East Respiratory Syndrome, suspected imported case in Hong Kong.

Source:

Centre for Health Protection (CHP), Hong Kong PRC SAR, full page: (LINK).

Code:

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The Centre for Health Protection (CHP) of the Department of Health today (September 20) reported a suspected case of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS), and again urged the public to pay special attention to safety during travel, taking due consideration of the health risks in the places of visit.

The case is detailed below:

  • Sex – Female
  • Age – 25
  • Affected area involved – Kuwait
  • High-risk exposure – Nil
  • Hospital - Princess Margaret Hospital
  • Condition – Stable
  • MERS-Coronavirus preliminary test result – Negative

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(…)

The public may visit:

Tour leaders and tour guides operating overseas tours are advised to refer to the CHP's health advice on MERS.

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Keywords: HK PRC SAR; Updates; MERS-CoV.

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#Cholera – #Zimbabwe (@WHO, September 20 ‘18)

          

Title:

#Cholera – #Zimbabwe.

Subject:

Acute Watery Diarrhea Outbreak (Cholera) in Zimbabwe, current situation.

Source:

World Health Organization (WHO), full page: (LINK).

Code:

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Disease outbreak news | 20 September 2018


On 6 September 2018, a cholera outbreak in Harare was declared by the Ministry of Health and Child Care (MoHCC) of Zimbabwe and notified to WHO on the same day.

Twenty-five patients were admitted to a hospital in Harare presenting with diarrhoea and vomiting on 5 September.

The first case, a 25-year-old woman, presented to a hospital and died on 5 September. A sample from the woman tested positive for Vibrio cholerae serotype O1 Ogawa.

All 25 patients had typical cholera symptoms including excessive vomiting and diarrhoea with rice watery stools and dehydration.

The MoHCC declared the outbreak after 11 cases were confirmed for cholera using rapid diagnostic test (RDT) kits and the clinical presentation. Thirty-nine stool samples were collected for culture and sensitivity, 17 of which tested positive for V. cholerae serotype O1 Ogawa.

There has been rapid increase in the number of suspected cases reported per day since 1 September; there was a peak with 473 suspected cases notified on 9 September.

As of 15 September 2018, 3621 cumulative suspected cases, including 71 confirmed cases, and 32 deaths have been reported (case fatality ratio: 0.8 %); of these, 98% (3564 cases) were reported from the densely populated capital Harare. The most affected suburbs in Harare are Glen View and Budiriro.

Cases with epidemiological links to cases from Harare have been recently reported from across the country, including in Mashonaland Central Province (Shamva District), Midlands Province (Gokwe North District), Manicaland Province (Buhera and Makoni districts), Masvingo Province and Chitungwiza City.


Public health response

  • The MoHCC declared the cholera outbreak in Harare City on 6 September; the Government declared the outbreak an emergency and subsequently a disaster on 13 and 14 September, respectively.
  • Outbreak coordination committees at the national and district levels have been established.
  • WHO and the WHO Country Office (WCO) are supporting the MoHCC with coordination, scaling up the response, strengthening surveillance and mobilizing both national and international health experts to form a cholera surge team.
  • WHO experts are providing technical support to laboratories, improving diagnostics and strengthening infection and prevention control (IPC) in communities and health clinics.
  • The Government is assessing the potential benefits of conducting an oral cholera vaccine (OCV) campaign; WHO is deploying an expert in OCV campaigns to Harare to support this assessment.
  • A cholera treatment centre (CTC) was established by Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) in Glen View, Harare; MSF has provided extra nurses to support the response.
  • The recruitment of additional nurses to strengthen the response is ongoing.
  • WHO is providing supplies which contain oral rehydration solution, intravenous fluids and antibiotics for the treatment of patients in CTCs set up by partners.
  • Risk communication activities in affected and at-risk districts are being conducted by the Government and health partners.


WHO risk assessment

The outbreak started on 5 September and the number of cases notified per day continues to rapidly increase, particularly in Glen View and Budiriro suburbs of Harare.

Cases with epidemiological links to this outbreak have been reported from other provinces across the country. Glen View, which is the epicentre of the outbreak, is an active informal trading area where people come from across the city and the rest of the country to trade.

Key risk factors for cholera in Zimbabwe include:

  • the deterioration of sanitary and health infrastructure and
  • increasing rural-urban migration which further strains the water and sanitation infrastructure.

In Harare, contaminated water from boreholes and wells is suspected to be the source of the outbreak. The water supply situation in Harare remains dire due to the high demand of water that is not being met by the city supply. The country’s available response capacities are overstretched as authorities are already responding to a large typhoid outbreak which started in August 2018.

WHO assessed the overall public health risk to be high at the national level and moderate at the regional and low at global levels.


WHO advice

WHO recommends proper and timely case management in CTCs. Increasing access to potable water, improving sanitation infrastructure, and strengthening hygiene and food safety practices in affected communities are the most effective means to prevent and control cholera. Key public health communication messages should be provided to the affected population.

WHO advises against any restrictions on travel or trade to or with Zimbabwe based on the information currently available in relation to this outbreak.

For further information, please refer to:

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Keywords: WHO; Updates; Cholera; Zimbabwe.

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#Ebola virus disease – #DRC (@WHO, Sept. 20 ‘18)

          

Title:

#Ebola virus disease – #DRC.

Subject:

Ebola Virus Disease Outbreak in the Dem. Rep. of Congo, current situation.

Source:

World Health Organization (WHO), full page: (LINK).

Code:

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Disease outbreak news | 20 September 2018


The Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak in the Democratic Republic of the Congo remains active. While substantial progress has been made to limit the spread of the disease to new areas and the situation in Mangina (Mabalako Health Zone) is stabilizing, the cities of Beni and Butembo have become the new hotspot. Response teams continue to enhance activities to mitigate potential clusters in these cities and prevent spread to other areas.

Significant risks for further spread of the disease remain. Continued challenges include contacts lost to follow-up, delayed recognition of EVD in health centres, poor infection prevention and control (IPC) in health centres, and reluctance among some cases to be treatment in Ebola treatment centres (ETCs).

While the majority of communities have welcomed response measures, in some, risks of transmission and poor disease outcomes have been amplified by unfavourable behaviours, with reluctance to adopt prevention and risk mitigation strategies. The priority remains strengthening all components of the public health response in all affected areas, as well as continuing to enhance operational readiness and preparedness in the non-affected provinces of the Democratic Republic of the Congo and neighbouring countries.

Since the last Disease Outbreak News (data as of 12 September), five new confirmed EVD cases were reported: four from Beni and one from Butembo health zones. All have been linked to ongoing transmission chains within these respective communities.

As of 18 September 2018, a total of 142 EVD cases (111 confirmed and 31 probable), including 97 deaths (66 confirmed and 31 probable)1 have been reported in seven health zones in North Kivu Province (Beni, Butembo, Kalunguta, Mabalako, Masereka, Musienene and Oicha), and Mandima Health Zone in Ituri Province (Figure 1).

An overall decreasing trend in weekly case incidence continues (Figure 2); however, these trends must be interpreted with caution given the expected delays in case reporting and the ongoing detection of sporadic cases.

Of the 135 probable and confirmed cases for whom age and sex information is known, adults aged 35–44 years (23%) and females (56%) accounted for the greatest proportion of cases (Figure 3). Cumulatively, 19 (18 confirmed and one probable) health workers have been affected to date, three of whom have died.

The Ministry of Health (MoH), WHO and partners continue to closely monitor and investigate all alerts in affected areas, in other provinces in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and in neighbouring countries. As of 18 September 2018, nine suspected cases are awaiting laboratory testing. Since the last report was published, alerts were investigated in several provinces of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, as well as in neighbouring countries; and to date, EVD has been ruled out in all alerts from neighbouring provinces and countries.

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Figure 1: Confirmed and probable Ebola virus disease cases by health zone in North Kivu and Ituri provinces, Democratic Republic of the Congo, data as of 18 September 2018 (n=142)

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Figure 2: Confirmed and probable Ebola virus disease cases by week of illness onset, data as of 18 September 2018 (n=142)*

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{*} Data in recent weeks are subject to delays in case confirmation and reporting, as well as ongoing data cleaning.

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Figure 3: Confirmed and probable Ebola virus disease cases by age and sex, data as 18 September 2018 (n=135)*

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{*} Age and/or sex unknown for n=7 cases.


Public health response

The MoH continues to strengthen response measures, with support from WHO and partners. Priorities include coordinating the response, surveillance, contact tracing, laboratory capacity, IPC measures, clinical management of patients, vaccination, risk communication and community engagement, safe and dignified burials (SDB), cross-border surveillance, and preparedness activities in neighbouring provinces and countries.

  • As of 18 September, 209 experts have been deployed by WHO to support response activities including emergency coordinators, epidemiologists, laboratory experts, logisticians, clinical care specialists, communicators, and community engagement specialists.
  • Over 5000 contacts have been registered to date, of which 1983 remain under surveillance as of 18 September2
  • As of 19 September, 58 vaccination rings have been defined, in addition to 24 rings of health workers and other frontline workers. These rings include the contacts (and their contacts) of all confirmed cases from the last four weeks.
  • To date, 10 701 people consented and were vaccinated, including 4008 health care or frontline workers, and 2362 children. The ring vaccination teams are currently active in three health areas in North Kivu and one in Ituri.
  • ETCs remain fully operational in Beni and Mangina with support from The Alliance for International Medical Action (ALIMA) and Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF), respectively. MSF Switzerland and the MoH are supporting a temporary treatment center in Butembo where a fully functional ETC will open soon. The Makeke ETC in Ituri Province, which is supported by International Medical Corps (IMC), was inaugurated on 18 September. Samaritan's Purse continues to support IPC activities in Bunia.
  • ETCs continue to provide therapeutic agents under the monitored emergency use of unregistered and experimental interventions (MEURI) protocol in collaboration with the MoH and the Institut National de Recherche Biomédicale (INRB). WHO is providing technical clinical expertise and mentoring onsite.
  • WASH and IPC activities are ongoing in the DRC and are supported by a number of partners in the field. Numerous activities have occurred in health facilities in the affected areas which include facility assessments, decontamination of centres, establishment of triage areas, and training on standard precautions as well as Ebola-specific IPC measures, which include personal protective equipment donning and doffing.
  • The MoH, WHO, UNICEF, Red Cross and partners are intensifying activities to engage with local communities in the affected areas. Local leaders, religious leaders, opinion leaders, and community networks such as youth groups, women’s group and motorbike taxi drivers are being engaged on a daily basis to support community outreach for Ebola prevention and early care seeking through active dialogues on radio, community gatherings and house-to-house visits. Community feedback is being systematically collected and concerns are being addressed. Local frontline community outreach workers are working closely with Ebola response teams to strengthen community engagement and psychosocial support in contact tracing, patient care, SDBs and vaccination of close contacts. The current focus is to intensify activities aimed at addressing community concerns through direct partnership with community members.
  • Expert teams have deployed to six at-risk provinces (Bas Uele, Haut Uele, Ituri, Maniema, South Kivu and Tanganika) to facilitate implementation of priority readiness actions, including strengthening multisectoral coordination, surveillance for early detection, laboratory diagnostic capacity, points of entry (PoE) surveillance, rapid response teams, risk communication, social mobilization and community engagement, case management and IPC capacities, operations support, and logistics.
  • As of 17 September, health screening has been established at 43 PoEs and close to four million travellers have been screened at these PoEs.
  • To support the MoH, WHO is working intensively with a wide range of, multisectoral and multidisciplinary regional and global partners and stakeholders for EVD response, research and urgent preparedness, including in neighbouring countries. This includes the UN secretariat, sister Agencies, including International Organization for Migration (IOM), the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), World Food Programme (WFP), United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA), Inter-Agency Standing Committee (IASC), multiple Clusters, and peacekeeping operations; World Bank and regional development banks; African Union, and Africa Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and regional agencies; Global Outbreak Alert and Response Network (GOARN), Steering Committee, technical networks and operational partners, and the Emergency Medical Team Initiative. GOARN partners continue to support the response through deployment for response, and readiness activities in non-affected provinces and in neighbouring countries.


WHO risk assessment

This outbreak of EVD is affecting north-eastern provinces of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, which border Uganda, Rwanda and South Sudan. Potential risk factors for transmission of EVD at the national and regional levels include the transportation links between the affected areas, the rest of the country, and neighbouring countries; the internal displacement of populations; and the displacement of Congolese refugees to neighbouring countries. The country is concurrently experiencing other epidemics (e.g. cholera, vaccine-derived poliomyelitis), and a long-term humanitarian crisis. Additionally, the security situation in North Kivu and Ituri continues to hinder the implementation of response activities. Based on this context, the public health risk was assessed to be high at the national and regional levels, and low globally.

As the risk of national and regional spread remains high, it is important for neighbouring provinces and countries to enhance surveillance and preparedness activities. WHO will continue to work with neighbouring countries and partners to ensure health authorities are alerted and are operationally ready to respond.


WHO advice

WHO advises against any restriction of travel and trade to the Democratic Republic of the Congo based on the currently available information. WHO continues to closely monitor and, if necessary, verify travel and trade measures in relation to this event.

Currently, no countries have implemented any travel restriction to and from the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

Travellers should seek medical advice before travel and should practice good hygiene.

For more information, see:

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{1} The number of cases is subject to change due to ongoing reclassification, retrospective investigation, and the availability of laboratory results.

{2} The total number of contacts under surveillance is highly dynamic with new cases being registered daily, and those who complete 21 days of post-exposure follow-up, without developing symptoms, are released from surveillance.

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Keywords: WHO; Updates; Ebola; DRC.

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Low pathogenic #avian #influenza #H7N3, #USA [a #poultry #outbreak] (#OIE, Sept. 20 ‘18)

          

Title:

Low pathogenic #avian #influenza #H7N3, #USA [a #poultry #outbreak].

Subject:

Avian Influenza, H7N3 subtype, poultry epizootics in USA.

Source:

OIE, full page: (LINK).

Code:

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Information received on 19/09/2018 from Dr John Clifford, Official Delegate, Chief Trade Advisor, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, United States Department of Agriculture, Washington, United States of America

  • Summary
    • Report type    Follow-up report No. 1
    • Date of start of the event    06/09/2018
    • Date of confirmation of the event    08/09/2018
    • Report date    19/09/2018
    • Date submitted to OIE    19/09/2018
    • Reason for notification    Recurrence of a listed disease
    • Date of previous occurrence    30/04/2018
    • Manifestation of disease    Sub-clinical infection
    • Causal agent    Low pathogenic avian influenza virus
    • Serotype    H7N3
    • Nature of diagnosis    Laboratory (advanced)
    • This event pertains to    a defined zone within the country
  • Summary of outbreaks   
    • Total outbreaks: 1
      • Total animals affected: Species    - Susceptible    - Cases    - Deaths    - Killed and disposed of    - Slaughtered
        • Birds    - 35000    - ** – … – 35000    - 0
      • Outbreak statistics: Species    - Apparent morbidity rate    - Apparent mortality rate    - Apparent case fatality rate    - Proportion susceptible animals lost*
        • Birds    - **    - **    - **    - **
          • *Removed from the susceptible population through death, destruction and/or slaughter
          • **Not calculated because of missing information
  • Epidemiology
    • Source of the outbreak(s) or origin of infection   
      • Unknown or inconclusive
  • Epidemiological comments   
    • As part of the pre-slaughter testing and surveillance program for H5/H7 Avian Influenza, H7N3 low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) was detected in a commercial meat-type turkey flock.
    • Surveillance conducted within 10km of the initial farm has detected H7N3 LPAI in another commercial meat-turkey farm.
    • Partial sequence data from the second detection is consistent with the index.
    • State officials have quarantined the affected premises and implemented movement controls.
    • Depopulation and disposal of the birds on the premises is near completion.

(...)
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Keywords: OIE; Updates; Avian Influenza; H7N3 ; Poultry; USA.

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#Italy, #WestNile Virus #Surveillance – Weekly #Update (MoH, Sept. 20 ‘18)

          

Title:

#Italy, #WestNile Virus #Surveillance – Weekly #Update.

Subject:

WNV Activity in Human & Equine, Italy, weekly report.

Source:

Ministry of Health, full PDF file: (LINK). Article in Italian, edited.

Code:

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Summary

  • From June 2018, Italy reported 460 confirmed cases of West Nile Virus Human infection.
  • Among them, 197 were West Nile Neuroinvasive Diseases (WNND), with 32 fatal cases;
  • In addition, 56 blood donors tested positive for WNV:
    • 1 in Asti,
    • 7 in Bologna,
    • 1 in Cremona,
    • 8 in Ferrara,
    • 2 in Forlì-Cesena,
    • 1 in Lodi, & Mantova,
    • 4 in Milano,
    • 7 in Modena,
    • 2 in Novara,
    • 4 in Padova,
    • 1 in Parma,
    • 1 in Pordenone,
    • 3 in Ravenna,
    • 1 in Reggio nell’Emilia,
    • 1 in Torino,
    • 1 in Udine,
    • 1 in Varese,
    • 1 in Venezia,
    • 2 in Vercelli,
    • 5 in Verona);
  • There were also 207 West Nile Fever cases:
    • 1 in Alessandria,
    • 1 in Asti,
    • 1 in Bergamo,
    • 16 in Bologna,
    • 3 in Ferrara,
    • 1 in Forlì-Cesena,
    • 33 in Modena,
    • 56 in Padova,
    • 1 in Parma,
    • 5 in Pavia,
    • 2 in Piacenza,
    • 5 in Pordenone,
    • 4 in Ravenna,
    • 4 in Reggio nell’Emilia,
    • 15 in Rovigo,
    • 1 in Torino,
    • 6 in Treviso,
    • 19 in Venezia,
    • 25 in Verona,
    • 8 in Vicenza.

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West Nile Virus in Human and Animal

3

[{    } WNV in Human, Animal & Vectors; {    } WNV in human only; {    } WNV in Animal & Vectors only.]

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WNND Cases in Italy

4

[WNND per provinces & classes of age.]

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Trend in WNND per month/year

5

[No. of cases of WNND per season]

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Keywords: Italy; Updates; West Nile Virus; Human.

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19 Sep 2018

#Influenza [#H1N1pdm09, #H3N2, B]–#Update No. 324, based on data up to 02 September 2018 (@WHO, summary)

          

Title:

#Influenza [#H1N1pdm09, #H3N2, B]–#Update No. 324, based on data up to 02 September 2018.

Subject:

Human Influenza Viruses, A (H1, H3) & B subtypes, global epidemiological update.

Source:

World Health Organization (WHO), full page: (LINK). Summary, edited.

Code:

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Information in this report is categorized by influenza transmission zones, which are geographical groups of countries, areas or territories with similar influenza transmission patterns.

For more information on influenza transmission zones, see the link below:

|-- Influenza Transmission Zones pdf, 659kb –|

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|-- Open map in new window jpg, 449kb –|


Summary

  • In the temperate zones of the southern hemisphere, influenza activity remained elevated in South America and appeared to decrease in Southern Africa.
  • Influenza activity remained at low seasonal levels in Australia and New Zealand and at inter-seasonal levels in most of temperate zone of the northern hemisphere.
  • Decreased influenza activity was reported in most countries of tropical America.
  • Worldwide, seasonal influenza subtype A viruses accounted for the majority of detections.
  • National Influenza Centres (NICs) and other national influenza laboratories from 81 countries, areas or territories reported data to FluNet for the time period from 20 August 2018 to 02 September 2018 (data as of 2018-09-14 04:22:09 UTC).
  • The WHO GISRS laboratories tested more than 47128 specimens during that time period.
  • 1934 were positive for influenza viruses, of which 1597 (82.6%) were typed as influenza A and 337 (17.4%) as influenza B.
  • Of the sub-typed influenza A viruses, 761 (64.9%) were influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 and 412 (35.1%) were influenza A(H3N2).
  • Of the characterized B viruses, 81 (66.9%) belonged to the B-Yamagata lineage and 40 (33.1%) to the B-Victoria lineage.


Detailed influenza update: |—Download PDF pdf, 815kb –|

Influenza fact sheet: |-- Influenza (Seasonal) fact sheet –|

Seasonal update: |-- Seasonal influenza reviews –|

|—AMRO | EURO | WPRO –|

|-- Influenza at the Human-Animal Interface (HAI) --|

|-- Disease outbreak news –|


Source of data

The Global Influenza Programme monitors influenza activity worldwide and publishes an update every two weeks. The updates are based on available epidemiological and virological data sources, including FluNet (reported by the WHO Global Influenza Surveillance and Response System), FluID (epidemiological data reported by national focal points) and influenza reports from WHO Regional Offices and Member States. Completeness can vary among updates due to availability and quality of data available at the time when the update is developed.

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Keywords: WHO; Updates; Seasonal Influenza; Worldwide.

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One New #MERS #Coronavirus Case reported by #Saudi Arabia (MoH, September 19 '18)

          

Title:

One New MERS Coronavirus Case reported by Saudi Arabia (MoH, September 19 '18).

Subject:

Middle East Respiratory Syndrome in Saudi Arabia, daily update.

Source:

Saudi Arabia Ministry of Health, full PDF file: (LINK).

Code:

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September 19 2018


New Case(s) Reported:

[Date report - Sex, Age, Citizenship, Resident in, Date Onset, Date Hospitalization, Health Status, Note]

  1. 19/9 - Male, 66, ..., Buraidah, ..., ..., Deceased; *

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{*} Primary case, community acquired (no exposure to camels).

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Cumulative number of confirmed cases and deaths since 2012:

  • Total No. of Cases: 1865 {§}
  • Total No. of Deaths: 795 {§}
  • Patients currently under treatment: ...
  • Case-Fatality Rate: 43%

{§} WHO data as of August 31 2018, see more: http://www.who.int/csr/don/31-august-2018-mers-united-kingdom/en/

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Keywords: MERS-CoV; Updates; Saudi Arabia.

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#Ebola Virus Disease #Outbreak in #DRC – #Situation #Report No. 7 (@WHO, Sept. 19 ‘18)

          

Title:

#Ebola Virus Disease #Outbreak in #DRC – #Situation #Report No. 7.

Subject:

Ebola Virus Disease Outbreak in the Dem. Rep. of Congo, current situation.

Source:

World Health Organization (WHO), via ReliefWeb, full page: (LINK).

Code:

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Keywords: Ebola; DRC; WHO; Updates.

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18 Sep 2018

#Indonesia, #Java: An #Avian #Influenza #H5N1 #Poultry #Outbreak reported (Sept. 18 ‘18)

          

Title:

#Indonesia, #Java: An #Avian #Influenza #H5N1 #Poultry #Outbreak reported.

Subject:

Avian Influenza, H5N1 subtype, poultry enzootic in Indonesia.

Source:

Local Media (iNews), full page: (LINK). Article in Bahasan, edited.

Code:

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H5N1 Avian Influenza Virus in Lebak Banten, Hundreds of Dead Poultry

Iskandar Nasution · Tuesday, September 18 2018 - 08:55 WIB


LEBAK, iNews.id - the Livestock Service Office of Lebak Regency, Banten, confirmed that hundreds of poultry that died suddenly in Kalanganyar District were positively infected by the H5N1 bird flu virus. At present, there are no actions from related parties. The Animal Husbandry Service only asks for readiness from farmers by burying dead birds.

Information gathered by iNews reporters in the field, for the past two weeks, hundreds of chicken and duck cattle, in Lebak, Banten, died suddenly. There are at least two sub-districts, namely Kalanganyar and Rangkasbitung sub-districts which report the presence of livestock that died suddenly.

The symptoms of the death of poultry are similar to deaths from the H5N1 bird flu virus. The symptoms seen in the poultry are lack of appetite, loss of hair, and staggering when walking. As for laying hens, there is a decrease in egg production, the body experiences high heat until it finally dies.

Through the results of laboratory investigations and tests, the local Animal Husbandry Service confirmed that the deaths of hundreds of chickens were caused by the bird flu virus. The virus spreads from direct chicken contact or through the air.

"There were 20 more of my chickens. Now it's all gone on dead. Do not know why the cause, immediately fell just kept on dying, "said Karto, one of the breeders from Kalanganyar District.

Karto said, initially only a few chickens were sick. But within one night, all of his chickens and ducks died simultaneously.

All dead chickens are not buried, but are thrown into a hole.

According to the Head of the Animal Health Division of the Lebak Health Office, Anmurza, from the results of the investigation, the entire sample of animal deaths was tested positive for H5N1 bird flu virus.

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Keywords: Avian Influenza; H5N1; Poultry; Indonesia; Java.

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