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Welcome to A Time's Memory Blog

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A TIME'S MEMORY - Flu, Bugs & Other Accidents Blog - Year: XIII - Here, Reader, you will find many items if your interests are in the field of emerging threats to global or public health, with a perspective that is not mainstream. Thank to You for the interest!

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22 Apr 2018

#Influenza and other #Respiratory #Viruses #Research #References #Library– April 22 2018 Issue

          

Title:

#Influenza and other #Respiratory #Viruses #Research #References #Library– April 22 2018 Issue.

Subject:

Human and Animal Influenza Viruses, other respiratory pathogens research, weekly references library update.

Source:

AMEDEO, homepage: (LINK).

Code:

[  R  |     ]

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This Issue:

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  1. LEE JJ, Bankhead C, Smith M, Kousoulis AA, et al.
    • Risk factors for influenza-related complications in children during the 2009/10 pandemic: a UK primary care cohort study using linked routinely collected data.
      • Epidemiol Infect. 2018 Apr 15:1-7. doi: 10.1017/S0950268818000353.
  2. BORGOGNA TR, Hisey B, Heitmann E, Obar JJ, et al.
    • Secondary Bacterial Pneumonia by Staphylococcus aureus following Influenza A Infection Is SaeR/S Dependent.
      • J Infect Dis. 2018 Apr 13. pii: 4970008. doi: 10.1093.
  3. VAN DE SANDT CE, Sagong KA, Pronk MR, Bestebroer TM, et al.
    • H1N1pdm09 Influenza Virus and its Descendants Lack Extra-Epitopic Amino Acid Residues Associated with Reduced Recognition by M158-66-specific CD8+ T-cells.
      • J Infect Dis. 2018 Apr 12. pii: 4969428. doi: 10.1093.
  4. DIPIAZZA A, Laniewski N, Rattan A, Topham DJ, et al.
    • CD4 T cell epitope specificity and cytokine potential are preserved as cells transition from the lung vasculature to lung tissue following influenza infection.
      • J Virol. 2018 Apr 18. pii: JVI.00377-18. doi: 10.1128/JVI.00377.
  5. LI M, Li J, Zeng R, Yang J, et al.
    • Respiratory Syncytial Virus Replication Is Promoted by Autophagy-Mediated Inhibition of Apoptosis.
      • J Virol. 2018;92.
  6. AGGARWAL M, Leser GP, Kors CA, Lamb RA, et al.
    • Structure of the Paramyxovirus Parainfluenza Virus 5 Nucleoprotein in Complex with an Amino-Terminal Peptide of the Phosphoprotein.
      • J Virol. 2018;92.
  7. TRIPP RA, Power UF, Openshaw PJM, Kauvar LM, et al.
    • Respiratory Syncytial Virus: Targeting the G Protein Provides a New Approach for an Old Problem.
      • J Virol. 2018;92.
  8. SZILAGYI PG, Schaffer S, Rand CM, Goldstein NPN, et al.
    • Impact of elementary school-located influenza vaccinations: A stepped wedge trial across a community.
      • Vaccine. 2018 Apr 17. pii: S0264-410X(18)30403.
  9. SHIBATA N, Kimura S, Hoshino T, Takeuchi M, et al.
    • Effectiveness of influenza vaccination for children in Japan: Four-year observational study using a large-scale claims database.
      • Vaccine. 2018 Apr 13. pii: S0264-410X(18)30460.
  10. HIROTA Y, Ozasa K, Nakano T.
    • Vaccine epidemiology: Its role in promoting sound immunization programs in Japan.
      • Vaccine. 2017;35:4787-4790.
  11. HOFSTETTER AM, Barrett A, Camargo S, Rosenthal SL, et al.
    • Text message reminders for vaccination of adolescents with chronic medical conditions: A randomized clinical trial.
      • Vaccine. 2017 Jul 20. pii: S0264-410X(17)30920.
  12. MADAN A, Collins H, Sheldon E, Frenette L, et al.
    • Evaluation of a primary course of H9N2 vaccine with or without AS03 adjuvant in adults: A phase I/II randomized trial.
      • Vaccine. 2017 Jul 15. pii: S0264-410X(17)30909.
  13. LI J, Zhang K, Chen Q, Zhang X, et al.
    • Three amino acid substitutions in the NS1 protein change the virus replication of H5N1 influenza virus in human cells.
      • Virology. 2018;519:64-73.

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Keywords: Research; Abstracts; Influenza References Library.

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21 Apr 2018

#Herpes is a common sexually transmitted disease (#STD) that any sexually active person can get (@CDCgov, edited)

          

Title:

#Herpes is a common sexually transmitted disease (#STD) that any sexually active person can get.

Subject:

Human Herpesvirus, info-grahpic and educational materials.

Source:

US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), full page: (LINK).

Code:

[ EDU |     ]

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it does notmatter howslow you go

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Keywords: US CDC; Educational Materials; Herpes Virus.

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20 Apr 2018

Weekly #US #Influenza #Surveillance #Report - 2017-18 Season, Wk 15 ending April 14 ‘18 (@CDCgov, summary)

          

Title:

Weekly #US #Influenza #Surveillance #Report - 2017-18 Season, Wk 15 ending April 14 ‘18.

Subject:

Human Influenza Viruses, A (H1, H3) & B subtypes, current epidemiological situation in the US.

Source:

US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), full page: (LINK). Summary, edited.

Code:

[     ]

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Weekly U.S. Influenza Surveillance Report - 2017-2018 Influenza Season Week 15 ending April 14, 2018

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Language: [ English (US) | Español ]

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All data are preliminary and may change as more reports are received.


Synopsis:

    • During week 15 (April 8-14, 2018), influenza activity decreased in the United States.
  • Viral Surveillance:
    • Overall, influenza A(H3) viruses have predominated this season.
    • Since early March, influenza B viruses have been more frequently reported than influenza A viruses.
    • The percentage of respiratory specimens testing positive for influenza in clinical laboratories decreased.
  • Pneumonia and Influenza Mortality:
    • The proportion of deaths attributed to pneumonia and influenza (P&I) was below the system-specific epidemic threshold in the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) Mortality Surveillance System.
  • Influenza-associated Pediatric Deaths:
    • Five influenza-associated pediatric deaths were reported.
  • Influenza-associated Hospitalizations:
    • A cumulative rate of 103.7 laboratory-confirmed influenza-associated hospitalizations per 100,000 population was reported.
  • Outpatient Illness Surveillance:
    • The proportion of outpatient visits for influenza-like illness (ILI) was 1.8%, which is below the national baseline of 2.2%.
    • One of 10 regions reported ILI at or above their region-specific baseline level.
    • One state experienced high ILI activity; two states experienced moderate ILI activity; six states experienced low ILI activity; and New York City, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, and 41 states experienced minimal ILI activity.
  • Geographic Spread of Influenza:
    • The geographic spread of influenza in five states was reported as widespread; Guam, Puerto Rico and 16 states reported regional activity; 21 states reported local activity; the District of Columbia and six states reported sporadic activity; and the U.S. Virgin Islands and two states reported no influenza activity.

(…)

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Keywords: US CDC; USA; Updates; Seasonal Influenza.

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#Influenza ranked highest in #burden of #disease measured in #DALYs (@ECDC_EU, Apr. 20 ‘18)

          

Title:

#Influenza ranked highest in #burden of #disease measured in #DALYs.

Subject:

Seasonal Influenza, consequences of annual epidemics in morbidity and mortality across the European Region.

Source:

European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC), full page: (LINK). Edited.

Code:

[ EDU | / |     ]

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Influenza ranked highest in burden of disease measured in DALYs

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Keywords: Seasonal Influenza; Educational Materials; ECDC; Updates; European Region.

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Highly pathogenic #avian #influenza #H7N9, #China [a #poultry #outbreak, #Ningxia-Hui] (#OIE, Apr. 21 ‘18)

          

Title:

Highly pathogenic #avian #influenza #H7N9, #China [a #poultry #outbreak, #Ningxia-Hui]

Subject:

Avian Influenza, H7N9 subtype, poultry epizootics in China.

Source:

OIE, full page: (LINK).

Code:

[     ]

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Highly pathogenic avian influenza H7N9, China (People's Rep. of)

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Information received on 17/04/2018 from Dr Zhang Zhongqui, Director General , China Animal Disease Control Centre, Veterinary Bureau, Ministry of Agriculture, Beijing, China (People's Rep. of)

  • Summary
    • Report type    Immediate notification
    • Date of start of the event    03/04/2018
    • Date of confirmation of the event    16/04/2018
    • Report date    17/04/2018
    • Date submitted to OIE    19/04/2018
    • Reason for notification    New strain of a listed disease
    • Manifestation of disease    Clinical disease
    • Causal agent    Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus
    • Serotype    H7N9
    • Nature of diagnosis    Clinical, Laboratory (basic), Laboratory (advanced)
    • This event pertains to    a defined zone within the country
  • New outbreaks
    • Summary of outbreaks   
      • Total outbreaks: 1
        • Outbreak Location     - Ningxia ( Wuzhong, Tongxin )
          • Total animals affected:    Species    - Susceptible    - Cases    - Deaths    - Killed and disposed of    - Slaughtered
            • Birds     - 13578     - 1200     - 585     - 12993     - 0
      • Outbreak statistics:    Species    - Apparent morbidity rate    - Apparent mortality rate    - Apparent case fatality rate     - Proportion susceptible animals lost*
        • Birds    - 8.84%    - 4.31%    - 48.75%    - 100.00%
          • * Removed from the susceptible population through death, destruction and/or slaughter;
  • Epidemiology
    • Source of the outbreak(s) or origin of infection   
      • Unknown or inconclusive
  • Control measures
    • Measures applied   
      • Movement control inside the country
      • Surveillance outside containment and/or protection zone
      • Screening
      • Quarantine
      • Official destruction of animal products
      • Official disposal of carcasses, by-products and waste
      • Stamping out
      • Disinfection
      • Vaccination permitted (if a vaccine exists)
      • No treatment of affected animals
    • Measures to be applied   
      • No other measures
  • Diagnostic test results
    • Laboratory name and type    - Harbin National Avian influenza Reference Laboratory ( OIE Reference Laboratory )
      • Tests and results:    Species    - Test    - Test date    - Result
        • Birds    - reverse transcription - polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)    - 16/04/2018    - Positive
        • Birds    - virus isolation    - 16/04/2018    - Positive
  • Future Reporting
    • The event is continuing. Weekly follow-up reports will be submitted.


(...)

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Keywords: OIE; Updates; Avian Influenza; H7N9 ; Poultry; China; Ningxia.

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#Lassa Fever – #Nigeria (@WHO, Apr. 20 ‘18)

          

Title:

#Lassa Fever – #Nigeria.

Subject:

Lassa Fever Outbreak in Nigeria, current situation.

Source:

World Health Organization (WHO), full page: (LINK).

Code:

[     ]

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Lassa Fever – Nigeria

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Disease outbreak news / 20 April 2018

From 1 January through 15 April 2018, 1849 suspected cases have been reported from 21 states (Abia, Adamawa, Anambra, Bauchi, Benue, Delta, Ebonyi, Edo, Ekiti, Federal Capital Territory, Gombe, Imo, Kaduna, Kogi, Lagos, Nasarawa, Ondo, Osun, Plateau, Rivers, and Taraba).

Of these, 413 patients were confirmed with Lassa fever, nine were classified as probable 1422 tested negative and were classified as non-cases and for the five remaining suspect cases laboratory results are pending.

Among the 413 confirmed and the nine probable Lassa fever cases, 114 deaths were reported (case fatality rate for confirmed cases is 25.4% and for confirmed and probable cases combined is 27%).

As of 15 April, 27 health care workers in seven states (Abia, Benue, Ebonyi, Edo, Kogi, Nasarawa, and Ondo), have been infected since 1 January 2018, eight of whom have died.

From the beginning of the outbreak in January 2018 to the week ending 18 February the number of weekly reported Lassa fever cases, increased from 10 to 70 cases.

From late-February to early March, there has been a downward trend in the weekly reported number of Lassa fever cases with less than 20 cases reported each week in March and only five new cases reported in the week ending 15 April 2018 (Figure 1).

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Figure 1: Number of confirmed and probable Lassa fever cases in Nigeria reported by the week of illness onset from 1 January through 15 April 2018

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Source: Nigeria Centre for Disease Control (NCDC)

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Lassa fever case management centres are operational in three states (Ebonyi, Edo, and Ondo States). The health care workers working in these centres are trained in standard infection prevention and control (IPC) as well as in the use of personal protective equipment (PPE) and case management. In addition, the suspected cases and deaths reported in community settings are being actively investigated by the field teams and contacts are being followed up.

Currently, three laboratories at Abuja, Irrua and Lagos are operational and testing samples for Lassa fever by polymerase chain reaction (PCR).

Phylogenetic analysis of 49 viruses detected during the 2018 outbreak, provided through ongoing collaborations between Irrua Specialist Teaching Hospital, Bernhard Nocht Institute of Tropical Medicine, African Center of Excellence for Genomics of Infectious Disease (ACEGID), and Redeemer’s University, has shown evidence of multiple, independent introductions of different viruses and viruses similar to previously circulating lineages identified in Nigeria.

This is indicative that the main mode of transmission is through spillover from the rodent population, and limited human to human transmission.

WHO continues to directly support the outbreak response, and coordinate international assistance through the Global Outbreak Alert and Response Network (GOARN), mainly in the domains of enhanced surveillance and case investigation, contact tracing, strengthening of diagnostic capacity, case management, IPC and risk communication.

In addition, WHO continues to work on standardizing treatment guidance across all treatment centres and on standardization of the reporting and laboratory investigation.

Lassa fever is endemic in the West African countries of Ghana, Guinea, Mali, Benin, Liberia, Sierra Leone, Togo and Nigeria.


Public health response

  • A national Lassa fever Emergency Operations Centre (EOC) was activated in Abuja by Nigeria Centre for Disease Control (NCDC) on 22 January and continues to coordinate response activities in collaboration with WHO and other partners.
  • A comprehensive incident action plan has been developed to guide response activities and inform priority areas for collaboration with partners and resource mobilization. This plan has just been reviewed and updated, taking into consideration the current disease epidemiology.
  • A team of NCDC staff, WHO and Nigeria Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program (NFELTP) residents were deployed initially to respond to the Ebonyi, Ondo, and Edo outbreaks, and more recently also to Abia state. State level EOCs have also been created.
  • The three most affected states of Edo, Ondo and Ebonyi have dedicated Lassa fever treatment units and intravenous ribavirin is available for treatment of confirmed cases.
  • NCDC is collaborating with a non-governmental organization, the Alliance for International Medical Action (ALIMA), to support the treatment centres in Owo and Irrua; and with Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) to support IPC interventions (PPE and training) in Abakaliki. WHO case management/IPC team has provided training to medical staff at Abakaliki and Irrrua.
  • Enhanced surveillance is ongoing in states with an active outbreak and state line lists of cases are being uploaded to a national level database, a viral haemorrhagic fever management system.
  • NCDC, with WHO support, continues to supply PPE to all Lassa fever treatment centres.
  • Staffs from Irrua Specialist Teaching Hospital are providing clinical case management advice to other hospitals with suspected cases, and a 24-hour Lassa fever case management call line has been established. A Lassa fever committee has been established in Abakaliki to improve the care of patients affected by Lassa fever.
  • NCDC has deployed risk communication and community engagement teams to Edo, Ondo and Ebonyi to promote personal and community hygiene, and appropriate health seeking behaviour. Mechanisms are being set up to better understand and respond to community concerns.


WHO risk assessment

Lassa fever is a viral haemorrhagic fever that is transmitted to humans via contact with food or household items contaminated with rodent urine or faeces.

Person-to-person infections and laboratory transmission can also occur when there is unprotected contact with blood or bodily fluids.

Although the overall case fatality rate is 1% in all patients with Lassa fever (when asymptomatic and mildly symptomatic patients are included), mortality has been reported to be as high as 20% or higher among patients hospitalized with severe illness.

Early supportive care with rehydration and ribavirin treatment improves survival.

There is no evidence to support the role of ribavirin as post-exposure prophylactic treatment for Lassa fever, except for high-risk contacts.

Lassa fever is known to be endemic in Nigeria, Liberia, Guinea and Sierra Leone and evidence of Lassa fever infection has been reported in Benin, Ghana, Mali, and Togo, and most likely exists in other West African countries.

The current Lassa fever outbreak in Nigeria shows a decreasing trend in the number of cases and deaths in the most recent four weeks. This declining trend needs to be interpreted with caution as historical data shows that the high transmission period has not passed. The surveillance system has recently been strengthened.

This is the largest outbreak of Lassa fever ever reported in Nigeria.

The infection of 27 health care workers highlights the crucial need to strengthen infection prevention and control practices in all health care setting for all patients, regardless of their presumed diagnosis.

The reporting of confirmed cases in different parts of the country and at borders with neighbouring countries indicate a risk of possible spread nationally and to neighbouring countries.

An overall moderate level of risk remains at the regional level.

Public health actions should be focused on enhancing ongoing activities including surveillance, contact tracing, laboratory testing, and case management.


WHO advice

Prevention of Lassa fever relies on community engagement and promoting hygienic conditions to discourage rodents from entering homes. In healthcare settings, staff should consistently implement standard infection prevention and control measures when caring for patients to prevent nosocomial spread of infections.

Travellers from areas where Lassa fever is endemic can export the disease to other countries, although this rarely occurs. The diagnosis of Lassa fever should be considered in febrile patients returning from West Africa, especially if they have been in rural areas or hospitals in countries where Lassa fever is endemic. Health care workers seeing a patient suspected to have Lassa fever should immediately contact local and national experts for guidance and to arrange for laboratory testing and use appropriate infection and control measures.

For more information on Lassa fever, please see the link below:

|-- WHO fact sheet on Lassa fever –|

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Keywords: WHO; Updates; Lassa Fever; Nigeria.

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19 Apr 2018

Highly pathogenic #avian #influenza #H5N2, #Taiwan [four #poultry #outbreaks] (#OIE, Apr. 19 ‘18)

          

Title:

Highly pathogenic #avian #influenza #H5N2, #Taiwan [four #poultry #outbreaks].

Subject:

Avian Influenza, H5N2 subtype, poultry epizootics in Taiwan.

Source:

OIE, full page: (LINK).

Code:

[     ]

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Highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N2, Chinese Taipei

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Information received on 19/04/2018 from Dr Tai-Hwa Shih, Chief Veterinary Officer, Deputy Director General, Bureau of Animal and Plant Health Inspection and Quarantine Council of Agriculture Executive Yuan, Ministry of Agriculture, Taipei, Chinese Taipei

  • Summary
    • Report type    Follow-up report No. 96
    • Date of start of the event    07/01/2015
    • Date of confirmation of the event    11/01/2015
    • Report date    16/04/2018
    • Date submitted to OIE    19/04/2018
    • Reason for notification    Recurrence of a listed disease
    • Date of previous occurrence    23/07/2014
    • Manifestation of disease    Clinical disease
    • Causal agent    Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus
    • Serotype    H5N2
    • Nature of diagnosis    Clinical, Laboratory (advanced)
    • This event pertains to    a defined zone within the country
  • Summary of outbreaks   
    • Total outbreaks: 4
      • Total animals affected: Species    - Susceptible    - Cases    - Deaths    - Killed and disposed of    - Slaughtered
        • Birds    - 62935    - 7242    - 7242    - 55693    - 0
      • Outbreak statistics: Species    - Apparent morbidity rate    - Apparent mortality rate    - Apparent case fatality rate    - Proportion susceptible animals lost*
        • Birds    - 11.51%    - 11.51%    - 100.00%    - 100.00%
          • *Removed from the susceptible population through death, destruction and/or slaughter
  • Epidemiology
    • Source of the outbreak(s) or origin of infection   
      • Unknown or inconclusive
  • Epidemiological comments   
    • Samples from Yunlin County, Changhua County, Taichung City and Tainan City were sent to the National Laboratory, Animal Health Research Institute (AHRI) for diagnosis.
    • Highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N2 subtype was confirmed by AHRI.
    • The infected farms have been placed under movement restriction.
    • All animals on the infected farms have been culled.
    • Thorough cleaning and disinfection have been conducted after stamping out operation.
    • Surrounding poultry farms within 3 km radius of the infected farms are under intensified surveillance for three months.

(...)

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Keywords: OIE; Updates; Avian Influenza; H5N2 ; Poultry; Taiwan.

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#Cholera #Outbreak in #Somalia, 19 April 2018 #Update (@WHO EMRO, edited)

          

Title:

#Cholera #Outbreak in #Somalia, 19 April 2018 #Update.

Subject:

Acute Watery Diarrhea and Cholera outbreak in Somalia, current situation.

Source:

World Health Organization (WHO), Office for the Eastern Mediterranean Region, full page: (LINK).

Code:

[     ]

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Cholera Outbreak in Somalia, 19 April 2018 Update

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19 April 2018

The Ministry of Health of Somalia has announced 214 new cases of cholera, and zero associated deaths for week 14 (2 to 8 April) of 2018. The cumulative total number of cases is 2090, including 9 associated deaths (case-fatality rate 0.5%) since the beginning of the current outbreak in December 2017. Children under 2 years old represent 44% of the reported cases. Out of 104 stool samples collected this year, 32 have tested positive for the presence of Vibrio cholerae bacterium.

In week 14 active transmission of cholera was reported in Jowhar district of Middle Shabelle region, 7 districts in Banadir region and Kismayo in Lower Jubba region. Up until now, four regions, Banadir, Hiraan, Middle Shabelle, and Lower Jubba, have been affected.

Cholera is endemic in Somalia, however, in 2017 a major cholera outbreak affected many communities, and recorded 79 172 reported cases, including 1159 associated deaths. Oral cholera vaccination (OCV) campaigns were conducted in cholera hotspot areas in response to the outbreak, and successfully limited the number of new cases.

WHO recently concluded a week-long training for surveillance officers on the use of the electronic disease early warning alert and response network (EWARN) to record and report alerts of epidemic- and pandemic-prone diseases. Cholera alerts in the country were received from 265 health facilities through the EWARN system.

WHO is coordinating the planning and implementation of response activities with the Ministry of Health, WASH and Health Cluster partners, and local health authorities. This includes support for: clinical care delivery; support for case management in cholera treatment centres; surveillance; deployment of rapid response teams; engagement of community health workers; provision of medical supplies; health and hygiene education in affected communities; and distribution of hygiene kits.

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Keywords: WHO; Updates; Cholera; Somalia.

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#China, #Guangdong: the first #human case of #H7N9 #avian #influenza now out of danger (Apr. 19 ‘18)

          

Title:

#China, #Guangdong: the first #human case of #H7N9 #avian #influenza now out of danger.

Subject:

Avian Influenza, H7N9 subtypes, human case in Guangdong province of China.

Source:

Local Media, full page: (LINK). Article in Chinese, edited.

Code:

[     ]

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This year first case of H7N9 avian influenza is now out of danger after 57 days of treatment

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Source: Zhongshan Daily  Date: April 19, 2018

Yesterday, the reporter learned from the Department of Rehabilitation of the People's Hospital of the Municipal People’s Hospital that in 2018, the first patient of H7N9 in the province, Liu Axuan, was in stable condition and was undergoing lung and left limb functional rehabilitation. His vital signs were stable.

Joint treatment by provincial and municipal experts

On February 3 this year, Aunt Liu, who raised chickens in a town in Zhongshan, developed symptoms of cough. Originally thought it was just a common cold, he was transferred to two hospitals in seven days. Liu Alu gradually developed symptoms of high fever, chills, and difficulty breathing. He was sent to the ICU ward of the Municipal People's Hospital. At this time, the results sent to Guangzhou also came out: H7N9 virus RNA is positive.

H7N9 is bird flu and the overall mortality rate of the patients is around 30-40%. Mortality of critically ill patients is higher, and they die within three days. According to the Provincial Health Commission, this is the first case of H7N9 bird flu reported in Guangdong Province in 2018.

The rescue team consisting of provincial and municipal experts was established quickly. At that time, the routine life support methods had been used to the extreme, but the blood oxygen of the patient still did not meet the minimum standards necessary for maintaining life. Liu Aunt could be taken away by death at any time.

At this time, the hospital ECMO (external cardiopulmonary circulation system) team quickly established ECMO assistance for the patient. After treatment, Aunt Liu's blood oxygen came up and he gained valuable time for the next treatment. On the evening of February 10th, ECMO escorted Aunt Liu to the emergency ICU isolation ward. The doctor used her antiviral drugs oseltamivir and peramivir, which is an effective weapon for the treatment of influenza A.

The nurses who fought on the front lines wear gowns, protective glasses and masks from head to toe and are fully armed in isolation wards. They are changed every four hours. Within these four hours, they have to complete injections, blood draws, sucking, changing drugs, recording, feeding, and nursing care.... The potential for potential infection is also worrying. Some health care workers fear that their families may worry or even dare to The family revealed that they are treating a bird flu patient.

The patient's condition has stabilized

The persistence of day and night has finally allowed the medical staff to see the light. For three consecutive days starting from February 21st, the test results of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid delivered to the city's CDC indicated that FluA+B was negative. This means that Aunt Liu’s H7N9 has been “run away”.

When Aunt Liu, who had been lying in the ICU bed for 13 days, received various advanced treatments, many complications still came: venous thrombosis, co-infection, and failure of vital organs. The medical staff also started the second rescue battle. After active treatment, on the 2nd of March, Aunt Liu's condition was initially stable, and Liu Axuan, who could release the isolation, went to the internal medicine ICU. On March 26, the patient’s renal function was restored, and the blood purification machine was finally able to evacuate. On April 8th, Aunt Liu, who had been lying on the ICU bed for 57 days, finally left the intensive care unit and transferred to the General Ward of the Rehabilitation Medicine Department for a series of rehabilitation treatments.

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Keywords: China; Guangdong; Avian Influenza; H7N9; Human.

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18 Apr 2018

Highly pathogenic #avian #influenza #H5N8, #SouthAfrica [infected #wildbirds] (#OIE, Apr. 18 ‘18)

          

Title:

Highly pathogenic #avian #influenza #H5N8, #SouthAfrica [infected #wildbirds].

Subject:

Avian Influenza, H5N8 subtype, wild birds epizootics in South Africa.

Source:

OIE, full page: (LINK).

Code:

[     ]

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Highly pathogenic influenza A viruses (infection with) (non-poultry including wild birds) H5N8, South Africa

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Information received on 18/04/2018 from Dr Bothle Michael Modisane, Chief Director , Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, Animal Production and Health, PRETORIA, South Africa

  • Summary
    • Report type    Follow-up report No. 21
    • Date of start of the event    30/06/2017
    • Date of confirmation of the event    30/06/2017
    • Report date    17/04/2018
    • Date submitted to OIE    18/04/2018
    • Reason for notification    New strain of a listed disease in the country
    • Causal agent    Highly pathogenic influenza A virus
    • Serotype    H5N8
    • Nature of diagnosis    Clinical, Laboratory (advanced)
    • This event pertains to    a defined zone within the country
  • Summary of outbreaks   
    • Total outbreaks: 5
      • Total animals affected: Species    - Susceptible    - Cases    - Deaths    - Killed and disposed of    - Slaughtered
        • Rock Pigeon (Rock Dove):Columba livia(Columbidae)    - 50    - 7    - 7    - 0    - 0
        • African black oystercatcher :Haematopus moquini(Haematopodidae) – … – 1    - 1    - 0    - 0
        • Swift tern:Thalasseus bergii(Laridae) – … – 5    - 5    - 0    - 0
        • Birds    - 85    - 11    - 11    - 0    - 0
        • Common Tern:Sterna hirundo(Laridae) – … – 1    - 1    - 0    - 0
      • Outbreak statistics: Species    - Apparent morbidity rate    - Apparent mortality rate    - Apparent case fatality rate    - Proportion susceptible animals lost*
        • Rock Pigeon (Rock Dove):Columba livia(Columbidae)    - 14.00%    - 14.00%    - 100.00%    - 14.00%
        • African black oystercatcher :Haematopus moquini(Haematopodidae)    - **    - **    - 100.00%    - **
        • Swift tern:Thalasseus bergii(Laridae)    - **    - **    - 100.00%    - **
        • Birds    - 12.94%    - 12.94%    - 100.00%    - 12.94%
        • Common Tern:Sterna hirundo(Laridae)    - **    - **    - 100.00%    - **
          • *Removed from the susceptible population through death, destruction and/or slaughter
          • **Not calculated because of missing information
  • Epidemiology
    • Source of the outbreak(s) or origin of infection   
      • Unknown or inconclusive

(...)

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Keywords: OIE; Updates; Avian Influenza; H5N8 ; Poultry; Wild Birds; South Africa.

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