Welcome to A Time's Memory Blog

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A TIME'S MEMORY - Flu, Bugs & Other Accidents Blog - Year: XIV - Here, Reader, you will find many items if your interests are in the field of emerging threats to global or public health, with a perspective that is not mainstream. Thank to You for the interest!

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23 Jun 2019

#Zika #Virus #Research #References #Library–June 23 2019 #Update, Issue No. 171


Title:

#Zika #Virus #Research #References #Library–June 23 2019 #Update, Issue No. 171.

Subject:

Zika Virus Infection and related complications research, weekly references library update.

Source:

AMEDEO, homepage: https://amedeo.com

Code:

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This Issue:

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  1. MARINHO PES, Alvarenga PPM, Lima MT, de Souza Andrade A, et al.
    • Central and peripheral nervous system involvement in Zika virus infection in a child.
      • J Neurovirol. 2019 Jun 20. pii: 10.1007/s13365-019-00770.
  2. DE SOUSA LIMA ME, Rodrigues Bachur TP, Frota Aragao G.
    • Guillain-Barre Syndrome and its correlation with dengue, Zika and chikungunya viruses infection based on a literature review of reported cases in Brazil.
      • Acta Trop. 2019 Jun 17:105064. doi: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2019.105064.
  3. SHERER ML, Khanal P, Talham G, Brannick EM, et al.
    • Zika virus infection of pregnant rats and associated neurological consequences in the offspring.
      • PLoS One. 2019;14:e0218539.
  4. WILDER-SMITH A, Wei Y, Araujo TVB, VanKerkhove M, et al.
    • Understanding the relation between Zika virus infection during pregnancy and adverse fetal, infant and child outcomes: a protocol for a systematic review and individual participant data meta-analysis of longitudinal studies of pregnant women and their infants and children.
      • BMJ Open. 2019;9:e026092.
  5. DANG JW, Tiwari SK, Qin Y, Rana TM, et al.
    • Genome-wide Integrative Analysis of Zika-Virus-Infected Neuronal Stem Cells Reveals Roles for MicroRNAs in Cell Cycle and Stemness.
      • Cell Rep. 2019;27:3618-3628.
  6. NORRIS SL, Louis H, Sawin VI, Porgo TV, et al.
    • An evaluation of WHO emergency guidelines for Zika virus disease.
      • J Evid Based Med. 2019 Jun 18. doi: 10.1111/jebm.12347.
  7. PREM K, Lau MSY, Tam CC, Ho MZJ, et al.
    • Inferring who-infected-whom-where in the 2016 Zika outbreak in Singapore-a spatio-temporal model.
      • J R Soc Interface. 2019;16:20180604.
  8. CASTRO FL, Geddes VEV, Monteiro FLL, Goncalves RMDT, et al.
    • MicroRNAs 145 and 148a Are Upregulated During Congenital Zika Virus Infection.
      • ASN Neuro. 2019;11:1759091419850983.
  9. MOORE E, Rodriguez X, Fernandez D, Griffin I, et al.
    • Zika Testing Behaviors and Risk Perceptions Among Pregnant Women in Miami-Dade County, One Year After Local Transmission.
      • Matern Child Health J. 2019 Jun 17. pii: 10.1007/s10995-019-02756.
  10. BOWEN LR, Li DJ, Nola DT, Anderson MO, et al.
    • Identification of potential Zika virus NS2B-NS3 protease inhibitors via docking, molecular dynamics and consensus scoring-based virtual screening.
      • J Mol Model. 2019;25:194.
  11. LI L, He JA, Wang W, Xia Y, et al.
    • Development of a Direct-Reverse Transcription-Quantitative PCR (dirRT-qPCR) assay for Clinical Zika Diagnosis.
      • Int J Infect Dis. 2019 Jun 13. pii: S1201-9712(19)30252.
  12. FARIA AM, Mazon T.
    • Early diagnosis of Zika infection using a ZnO nanostructures-based rapid electrochemical biosensor.
      • Talanta. 2019;203:153-160.
  13. KIM J, Koo BK, Yoon KJ.
    • Modeling Host-Virus Interactions in Viral Infectious Diseases Using Stem-Cell-Derived Systems and CRISPR/Cas9 Technology.
      • Viruses. 2019;11.
  14. EVANS AS, Coyne CB.
    • RIPK3: Beyond Necroptosis.
      • Immunity. 2019;50:1-3.
  15. ALMUEDO-RIERA A, Rodriguez-Valero N, Camprubi D, Losada Galvan I, et al.
    • Mirroring the Zika epidemics in Cuba: The view from a European imported diseases clinic.
      • Travel Med Infect Dis. 2019 Jun 14. pii: S1477-8939(19)30098.

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Keywords: Research; Abstracts; Zika References Library.

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#Uganda, #Update of #Ebola #Outbreak in #Kasese District, 21 June 2019 (ReliefWeb, edited)


Title:

#Uganda, #Update of #Ebola #Outbreak in #Kasese District, 21 June 2019.

Subject:

Ebola Virus Disease, cluster of imported cases in Uganda, current situation.

Source:

ReliefWeb, full page: (LINK).

Code:

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Report from Government of Uganda | Published on 21 Jun 2019 | Download PDF (398.22 KB)


Kampala, 21 June 2019

As of today, Uganda has not registered any new confirmed Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) case in Kasese District or any other part of Uganda since the last registered case one week ago.

There are no new suspect cases under admission.

Currently, 110 contacts to the confirmed Ebola cases in Kagando and Bwera are being followed up daily.

A total of 456 individuals have been vaccinated against EVD using the 'Ebola-rVSV' vaccine in Kasese District, Western Uganda.

The vaccination exercise is currently taking place in the 13 areas of; Buhuna 2, Bwera Hospital, Kagando 1, Kaserengete, Kayantsi II, Kirembo, Lhibira Town Council, Mushenene 2, Ndongo, Nyamambuka II, Nyamatunga, Rusese Barracks and Rwenguhyo.

The 'Ebola-rVSV' vaccine is administered to contacts to the confirmed cases and non-vaccinated frontline health and other workers, the most high risk population to protect them against the deadly Ebola - Zaire virus strain.

Yesterday, 20th June 2019, a 19 year old male patient passed on after presenting with Viral Hemorrhagic Fever (VHF) symptoms such as fever and bleeding from the mouth at China-Uganda Friendship Hospital, Naguru.

Blood samples were withdrawn from the patient and sent to Uganda Virus Research Institute (UVRI) for testing .

Results showed that he was negative for Ebola, Marburg, Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever (CCHF), Rift Valley Fever (RVF) and Sosuga.

Uganda just concluded the first ever African Hepatitis Summit which attracted over 500 delegates from 25 countries across the world.

In the same vein, we would like to reassure International travelers that Uganda is safe and all our national parks and tourist sites remain open and accessible to the public.

We appeal to the public and malicious individuals to desist from spreading false rumors about the Ebola outbreak generally and on social media.

The outbreak is REAL and we urge all residents of Uganda to remain vigilant and report any suspected cases to the nearest health facility or call our toll-free number 0800-203-033 or 0800-100-066

The Ministry of Health appreciates all of its partners for their unwavering support in the preparedness phase and their commitment in the now response phase.

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Keywords: Uganda; Updates; Ebola.

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22 Jun 2019

#Influenza and other #Respiratory #Viruses #Research #References #Library – June 22 2019 Issue


Title:

#Influenza and other #Respiratory #Viruses #Research #References #Library – June 22 2019 Issue.

Subject:

Influenza Viruses Research, weekly references library update.

Source:

AMEDEO, homepage: https://amedeo.com

Code:

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This Issue:

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  1. QI J, Li X, Zhang Y, Shen X, et al.
    • Development of a duplex reverse transcription recombinase-aided amplification assay for respiratory syncytial virus incorporating an internal control.
      • Arch Virol. 2019;164:1843-1850.
  2. SPENCER S, Thompson MG, Flannery B, Fry A, et al.
    • Comparison of Respiratory Specimen Collection Methods for Detection of Influenza Virus Infection by RT-PCR: A Literature Review.
      • J Clin Microbiol. 2019 Jun 19. pii: JCM.00027-19. doi: 10.1128/JCM.00027.
  3. LIM HK, Huang SXL, Chen J, Kerner G, et al.
    • Severe influenza pneumonitis in children with inherited TLR3 deficiency.
      • J Exp Med. 2019 Jun 19. pii: jem.20181621. doi: 10.1084/jem.20181621.
  4. STALLER E, Sheppard CM, Neasham PJ, Mistry B, et al.
    • ANP32 proteins are essential for influenza virus replication in human cells.
      • J Virol. 2019 Jun 19. pii: JVI.00217-19. doi: 10.1128/JVI.00217.
  5. XU X, Blanton L, Elal AIA, Alabi N, et al.
    • Update: Influenza Activity in the United States During the 2018-19 Season and Composition of the 2019-20 Influenza Vaccine.
      • MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2019;68:544-551.
  6. LITVINOVA M, Liu QH, Kulikov ES, Ajelli M, et al.
    • Reactive school closure weakens the network of social interactions and reduces the spread of influenza.
      • Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2019 Jun 17. pii: 1821298116.
  7. KWONG JC, Buchan SA, Chung H, Campitelli MA, et al.
    • Can routinely collected laboratory and health administrative data be used to assess influenza vaccine effectiveness? Assessing the validity of the Flu and Other Respiratory Viruses Research (FOREVER) Cohort.
      • Vaccine. 2019 Jun 17. pii: S0264-410X(19)30772.
  8. MURTI M, Otterstatter M, Orth A, Balshaw R, et al.
    • Measuring the impact of influenza vaccination on healthcare worker absenteeism in the context of a province-wide mandatory vaccinate-or-mask policy.
      • Vaccine. 2019 Jun 13. pii: S0264-410X(19)30775.
  9. XIAO Y, Park JK, Williams S, Ramuta M, et al.
    • Deep sequencing of 2009 influenza A/H1N1 virus isolated from volunteer human challenge study participants and natural infections.
      • Virology. 2019;534:96-107.
  10. NICHOLS JE, Niles JA, Fleming EH, Roberts NJ, et al.
    • The role of cell surface expression of influenza virus neuraminidase in induction of human lymphocyte apoptosis.
      • Virology. 2019;534:80-86.

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Keywords: Research; Abstracts; Influenza References Library.

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#HK, Suspected #MERS #Coronavirus case reported (CHP, June 22 ‘19)


Title:

#HK, Suspected #MERS #Coronavirus case reported.

Subject:

Middle East Respiratory Syndrome, suspected imported case in Hong Kong.

Source:

Centre for Health Protection (CHP), Hong Kong PRC SAR, full page: (LINK).

Code:

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The Centre for Health Protection (CHP) of the Department of Health today (June 22) reported a suspected case of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS), and again urged the public to pay special attention to safety during travel, taking due consideration of the health risks in the places they visit.

The case is detailed below:

  • Sex – Male
  • Age – 37
  • Affected area involved – Israel
  • High-risk exposure – Nil
  • Hospital - United Christian Hospital
  • Condition – Stable
  • MERS-Coronavirus preliminary test result – Negative

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(…)

The public may visit:

Tour leaders and tour guides operating overseas tours are advised to refer to the CHP's health advice on MERS.


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Keywords: HK PRC SAR; Updates; MERS-CoV.

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One New #MERS #Coronavirus Case reported by #Saudi Arabia (MoH, June 22 '19).


Title:

One New MERS Coronavirus Case reported by Saudi Arabia (MoH, June 22 '19).

Subject:

Middle East Respiratory Syndrome in Saudi Arabia, daily update.

Source:

Ministry of Health, full page: (LINK).

Code:

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  June 22 2019 


New Case(s) Reported:

[Date report - Sex, Age, Resident in, Health Status, Note]

  1. 06/22 - Male, 42, Al Rass city (Qassim region), ...; *

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{*} Primary case (contact with camels).
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Cumulative number of confirmed cases and deaths since 2012:

  • Total No. of Cases: 2051  {§}
  • Total No. of Deaths: 765 {§}
  • Patients currently under treatment: ...
  • Case-Fatality Rate: 37.3%

{§} WHO data as of June 18, 2019, see more: http://www.emro.who.int/pandemic-epidemic-diseases/mers-cov/mers-situation-update-may-2019.html
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Keywords: MERS-CoV; Updates; Saudi Arabia.

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#China, #Influenza [#H1N1pdm09, #H3N2, B, #H7N9] Weekly #Report, Wk 24 ‘19 (CNIC, June 22 ‘19)


Title:

#China, #Influenza [#H1N1pdm09, #H3N2, B, #H7N9] Weekly #Report, Wk 24 ‘19.

Subject:

Seasonal Influenza, current epidemiological situation in China.

Source:

National Influenza Centre (NIC), PR of China, full page: (LINK).

Code:

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Download:China flu report 1924.pdf

(All data are preliminary and may change as more reports are received)


Summary

  • During week 24, influenza activity level continued to decrease in mainland China with B-Victoria lineage virus most frequently detected, followed by influenza A(H3N2) viruses, and the influenza activity returned to inter-seasonal level in most northern provinces.
  • Among influenza viruses antigenically characterized by CNIC since October1st, 2018:
    • 1994(97.5%) influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses were characterized as A/Michigan/45/2015-like;
    • 388(72.0%) influenza A(H3N2) viruses were characterized as A/Singapore/INFIMH-16-0019/2016 (EGG)-like,
    • 514(95.4%) influenza A(H3N2) viruses were characterized as A/Singapore/INFIMH-16-0019/2016 (CELL)-like;
    • 223(43.0%) influenza B/Victoria viruses were characterized as B/Colorado/06/2017-like;
    • 49(100.0%) influenza B/Yamagata viruses were characterized as B/Phuket/3073/2013-like.
  • Among the influenza viruses tested by CNIC for antiviral resistance analysis since October 1st, 2018:
    • all influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 and A(H3N2) viruses were resistant to amantadine;
    • All influenza A(H3N2) and B viruses were sensitive to neuraminidase inhibitors.
    • All but 12 influenza A(H1N1)pdm09were sensitive to neuraminidase inhibitors.


Surveillance of outpatient or emergency visits for Influenza-like Illness (ILI)

  • During week 24 (June 10th 2019 –June 16th 2019), the percentage of outpatient or emergency visits for ILI (ILI%) at national sentinel hospitals in southern provinces was 4.2%, lower than the last week(4.5%), higher than the same week of 2016-2018 (3.4%, 3.5%, 4.0%). (Figure 1)
  • During week 24, ILI% at national sentinel hospitals in northern provinces was 2.3%, lower than the last week(2.5%), lower than the same week of 2016-2018 (2.4%, 2.6%, 2.4%). (Figure 2)

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Figure 1. Percentage of Visits for ILI at Sentinel Hospitalsin South China (2016-2020)

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Figure 2. Percentage of Visits for ILI at Sentinel Hospitals in North China (2016-2020)

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Virologic Surveillance

  • During week 24, influenza network laboratories tested 4306 specimens, of which 438(10.2%) were positive for influenza, influenza A and influenza B viruses were 53(12.1%) and 385(87.9%), respectively (Table 1).
  • During week 24, the percentage of specimens that were tested positive for influenza in south China was 12.0%, which was lower than the previous week (16.2%)(Figure 3).
  • During week 24, the percentage of specimens that were tested positive for influenza in north China was 4.1%, which was lower than the previous week (7.2%). (Figure 4).

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Table 1 - Laboratory Detections of ILI Specimens (Week 24, 2019)

[Week 24: South China - North China – Total]

  • No. of specimens tested – 3304 – 1002 – 4306
    • No. of positive specimens (%) - 397(12.0%) - 41(4.1%) - 438(10.2%)
      • Influenza A - 45(11.3%) - 8(19.5%) - 53(12.1%)
        • A(H3N2) - 42(93.3%) - 8(100%) - 50(94.3%)
        • A(H1N1)pdm09 - 3(6.7%) - 0(0) - 3(5.7%)
        • A (subtype not determined) - 0(0) - 0(0) - 0(0)
      • Influenza B - 352(88.7%) - 33(80.5%) - 385(87.9%)
        • B (lineage not determined) - 6(1.7%) - 0(0) - 6(1.6%)
        • Victoria - 346(98.3%) - 33(100%) - 379(98.4%)
        • Yamagata - 0(0) - 0(0) - 0(0)

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Figure 3. Influenza Positive Tests Reported by Southern Network Laboratories (Week 14, 2018–Week 24, 2019)

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Note: Analysis in this part was based on the test results of network laboratories. If it were not consistent with the results of CNIC confirmation, the results of CNIC confirmation were used.

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Figure 4. Influenza Positive Tests Reported by Northern Network Laboratories (Week 14, 2018–Week 24, 2019)

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Note: Analysis in this part was based on the result of network laboratories. If it were not consistent with the results of CNIC confirmation, the results of CNIC confirmation were used.

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(…)

H7N9 Case Report

  • During week 24, no new human infection with novel reassortant influenza A(H7N9) virus was reported.


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Keywords: Seasonal Influenza; Updates; China.

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21 Jun 2019

#China, #Influenza [#H1N1pdm09, #H3N2, B, #H7N9] Weekly #Report - Wk 22 ‘19 (CNIC, June 21 ‘19)


Title:

#China, #Influenza [#H1N1pdm09, #H3N2, B, #H7N9] Weekly #Report - Wk 22 ‘19.

Subject:

Seasonal Influenza, current epidemiological situation in China.

Source:

National Influenza Centre (NIC), PR of China, full page: (LINK).

Code:

[     ]

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Download:China flu report 1922.pdf 

(All data are preliminary and may change as more reports are received)


Summary

  • During week 22, influenza activity level continued to decrease in mainland China with B-Victoria lineage virus most frequently detected, followed by influenza A(H3N2) and A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses.
  • Among influenza viruses antigenically characterized by CNIC since October1st, 2018:
    • 1811(97.4%) influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses were characterized as A/Michigan/45/2015-like;
    • 357(70.6%) influenza A(H3N2) viruses were characterized as A/Singapore/INFIMH-16-0019/2016 (EGG)-like,
    • 481(95.1%) influenza A(H3N2) viruses were characterized as A/Singapore/INFIMH-16-0019/2016 (CELL)-like;
    • 149(39.5%) influenza B/Victoria viruses were characterized as B/Colorado/06/2017-like;
    • 49(100.0%) influenza B/Yamagata viruses were characterized as B/Phuket/3073/2013-like.
  • Among the influenza viruses tested by CNIC for antiviral resistance analysis since October 1st, 2018:
    • all influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 and A(H3N2) viruses were resistant to amantadine;
    • All influenza A(H3N2) and B viruses were sensitive to neuraminidase inhibitors.
    • All but 12 influenza A(H1N1)pdm09were sensitive to neuraminidase inhibitors.


Surveillance of outpatient or emergency visits for Influenza-like Illness (ILI)

  • During week 22 (May 27th 2019 –June 2nd 2019), the percentage of outpatient or emergency visits for ILI (ILI%) at national sentinel hospitals in southern provinces was 4.1%, lower thanthe last week and the same week of 2018 (both 4.2%), higher than the same week of2016 and 2017 (3.4%, 3.6%).
  • During week 22, ILI% at national sentinel hospitals in northern provinces was 2.4%, lower than the last week and the same week of 2017 (2.5%, 2.8%), same as the same week of 2016 and 2018 (both 2.4%).

(…)


Virologic Surveillance

  • During week 22, influenza network laboratories tested 4614 specimens, of which 711(15.4%) were positive for influenza, influenza A and influenza B viruses were 71(10.0%) and 640(90.0%), respectively (Table 1).
  • During week 22, the percentage of specimens that were tested positive for influenza in south China was 17.0%, which was lower than the previous week (19.4%)(Figure 3).
  • During week 22, the percentage of specimens that were tested positive for influenza in north China was 9.8%, which was lower than the previous week (13.2%). (Figure 4).

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Table 1 - Laboratory Detections of ILI Specimens (Week 22, 2019)

[Week 22: South China - North China – Total]

  • No. of specimens tested – 3608 – 1006 – 4614
    • No. of positive specimens (%) - 612(17.0%) - 99(9.8%) - 711(15.4%)
      • Influenza A - 61(10.0%) - 10(10.1%) - 71(10.0%)
        • A(H3N2) - 47(77.0%) - 9(90.0%) - 56(78.9%)
        • A(H1N1)pdm09 - 14(23.0%) - 1(10.0%) - 15(21.1%)
        • A (subtype not determined) - 0(0) - 0(0) - 0(0)
      • Influenza B - 551(90.0%) - 89(89.9%) - 640(90.0%)
        • B (lineage not determined) - 14(2.5%) - 0(0) - 14(2.2%)
        • Victoria - 531(96.4%) - 89(100%) - 620(96.9%)
        • Yamagata - 6(1.1%) - 0(0) - 6(0.9%)

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Figure 3. Influenza Positive Tests Reported by Southern Network Laboratories (Week 14, 2018–Week 22, 2019)

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Note: Analysis in this part was based on the test results of network laboratories. If it were not consistent with the results of CNIC confirmation, the results of CNIC confirmation were used.

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Figure 4. Influenza Positive Tests Reported by Northern Network Laboratories (Week 14, 2018–Week 22, 2019)

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Note: Analysis in this part was based on the result of network laboratories. If it were not consistent with the results of CNIC confirmation, the results of CNIC confirmation were used.

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(…)


H7N9 Case Report

  • During week 22, no new human infection with novel reassortant influenza A(H7N9) virus was reported.


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Keywords: China; Updates; Seasonal Influenza; H1N1pdmm09; H3N2; B; H7N9.

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20 Jun 2019

#Ebola virus disease – #DRC (@WHO, June 20 ‘19)


Title:

#Ebola virus disease – #DRC.

Subject:

Ebola Virus Disease Outbreak in the Dem. Rep. of Congo, current situation.

Source:

World Health Organization (WHO), full page: (LINK).

Code:

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Disease outbreak news: Update | 20 June 2019 


This week saw a continued, gradual decrease in the number of new Ebola virus disease (EVD) cases from the hotspots of Katwa and Butembo compared to the previous weeks.

However, these encouraging signs are offset by a marked increase in case incidence in Mabalako Health Zone, and especially in Aloya Health Area (Figure 1).

While the spread of EVD to new geographic areas remains low, in the health zones of Bunia, Lubero, Komanda and Rwampara, recent reintroduction events illustrate the high risks in previously affected areas.

Along with the rise in cases in Mabalako, there was also an accompanying increase in healthcare worker (HCW) and nosocomial infections.

These findings highlight the ongoing need to comprehensively strengthen the infection prevention and control measures in the various healthcare facilities operating in these areas.

The occurrence of EVD infections in these health areas also place a strain on the already limited security resources needed to facilitate access for effective response activities to continue.

In addition to operational challenges encountered on the ground by healthcare workers during the past ten months, the overall EVD outbreak response effort is confronting substantial difficulty in maintaining scale in the context of a US $54 million funding shortage.

Without adequate funding to fill this gap, response activities will be compromised, negatively impacting the entire response, resulting in a drastic reduction in vital health services available and a cessation of operations during a critical time of the outbreak.

Member States and other donors are strongly encouraged to help meet this funding gap in order to ensure that hard won progress in containing this EVD outbreak will not suffer a potentially devastating setback due to financial limitations.

In the 21 days, between 29 May to 18 June 2019, 62 health areas within 15 health zones reported new cases, representing 9% of the 664 health areas within North Kivu and Ituri provinces (Figure 2).

During this period, a total of 245 confirmed cases were reported, the majority of which were from the health zones of Mabalako (37%, n=91), Mandima (12%, n=30), Katwa (11%, n=28), Beni (11%, n=27) , Butembo (9%, n=23) , Kalunguta (5%, n=13) and Musienene (5%, n=12).

As of 18 June 2019, a total of 2190 EVD cases, including 2096 confirmed and 94 probable cases, were reported.

A total of 1470 deaths were reported (overall case fatality ratio 67%), including 1376 deaths among confirmed cases.

Of the 2190 confirmed and probable cases with known age and sex, 57% (1242) were female, and 29% (639) were children aged less than 18 years.

Cases continue to rise among health workers, with the cumulative number infected rising to 122 (6% of total cases).

No new EVD cases or deaths have been reported in the Republic of Uganda since the previous EVD Disease Outbreak News publication on 13 June 2019.

Response activities are however ongoing, with active case surveillance and over 100 potentially exposed contacts identified, predominately in Kisinga and Bwera subcounties, Kasese District. Contacts will be visited daily for 21 days until the last contact completes follow-up on 2 July.

All contacts remain asymptomatic to date.

As of 19 June, a total of 456 individuals have been vaccinated in Uganda, including consenting contacts and contacts of contacts.

Following the detection of EVD cases in Uganda, on 14 June 2019, a meeting of the Emergency Committee was convened by the WHO Director-General under the International Health Regulations (IHR).

The Committee expressed its deep concern about the ongoing outbreak, which, despite some positive epidemiological trends, especially in the epicentres of Butembo and Katwa, shows that the extension and/or reinfection of disease in other areas like Mabalako.

This presents, once again, challenges around community acceptance and security. In addition, the response continues to be hampered by a lack of adequate funding and strained human resources.

It was noted that the cluster of cases in Uganda is not unexpected; the rapid response and initial containment is a testament to the importance of preparedness in neighbouring countries.

It was the view of the Committee that the outbreak is a health emergency in the Democratic Republic of the Congo and the region, but does not meet all the criteria for a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC).

The Committee provided public health advice, which it strongly urged countries and responding partners to heed. For the full statement and further details, please click here.

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Figure 1: Confirmed and probable Ebola virus disease cases by week of illness onset by health zone. Data as of 18 June 2019*

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|—Enlarge image –|

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{*} Data in recent weeks are subject to delays in case confirmation and reporting, as well as ongoing data cleaning. Other health zones include: Alimbongo, Biena, Bunia, Kalunguta, Kayna, Komanda, Kyondo, Lubero, Mangurujipa, Masereka, Mutwanga, Nyankunde, Oicha, Rwampara and Tchomia.

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Figure 2: Confirmed and probable Ebola virus disease cases by week of illness onset by health zone. Data as of 18 June 2019

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|—Enlarge image –|

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Table 1: Confirmed and probable Ebola virus disease cases, and number of health areas affected, by health zone, North Kivu and Ituri provinces, Democratic Republic of the Congo, data as of 18 June 2019**

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|—Enlarge image –|

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{**} Total cases and areas affected based during the last 21 days are based on the initial date of case alert and may differ from date of confirmation and daily reporting by the Ministry of Health.


Public health response

For further detailed information about the public health response actions by the MoH, WHO, and partners, please refer to the latest situation reports published by the WHO Regional Office for Africa:

|-- Ebola situation reports: Democratic Republic of the Congo –|

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WHO risk assessment

WHO continuously monitors changes to the epidemiological situation and context of the outbreak to ensure that support to the response is adapted to the evolving circumstances.

The last assessment concluded that the national and regional risk levels remain very high, while global risk levels remain low.

Weekly increases in the number of new cases were observed from February through mid-May 2019, with lower though still substantial rates since then.

A general deterioration of the security situation, and the persistence of pockets of community mistrust exacerbated by political tensions and insecurity, especially over the past four weeks, have resulted in recurrent temporary suspension and delays of case investigation and response activities in affected areas, reducing the overall effectiveness of interventions.

However, recent community dialogue, outreach initiatives, and restoration of access to certain hotspot areas have resulted in some improvements in community acceptance of response activities and case investigation efforts.

In order to ensure staff safety and security, security mitigation measures are being enhanced, and procedural, operational, and physical security challenges are being addressed.

The high proportion of community deaths reported among confirmed cases, relatively low proportion of new cases who were known contacts under surveillance, existence of transmission chains linked to nosocomial infection, persistent delays in detection and isolation in ETCs, and challenges in the timely reporting and response to probable cases, are all factors increasing the likelihood of further chains of transmission in affected communities and increasing the risk of geographical spread both within the Democratic Republic of the Congo and to neighbouring countries.

The high rates of population movement occurring from outbreak affected areas to other areas of the Democratic Republic of the Congo and across porous borders to neighbouring countries during periods of heightened insecurity further compounds these risks.

Additional risks are posed by the long duration of the current outbreak, fatigue amongst response staff, and ongoing strain on limited resources.

Conversely, substantive operational readiness and preparedness activities in a number of neighbouring countries have likely increased capacity to rapidly detect cases and mitigate local spread. These efforts must continue to be scaled-up.


WHO advice

WHO advises against any restriction of travel to, and trade with, the Democratic Republic of the Congo based on the currently available information. There is currently no licensed vaccine to protect people from the Ebola virus. Therefore, any requirements for certificates of Ebola vaccination are not a reasonable basis for restricting movement across borders or the issuance of visas for travellers to/from the affected countries. WHO continues to closely monitor and, if necessary, verify travel and trade measures in relation to this event. Currently, no country has implemented travel measures that significantly interfere with international traffic to and from the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Travellers should seek medical advice before travel and should practice good hygiene.

For more information, please see:


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Keywords: WHO; Updates; Ebola; DRC; Uganda.

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Highly pathogenic #avian #influenza #H5N8, #Namibia [infected #wildbirds] (#OIE, June 20 ‘19)


Title:

Highly pathogenic #avian #influenza #H5N8, #Namibia [infected #wildbirds].

Subject:

Avian Influenza, H5N8 subtype, wild birds epizootic in Namibia.

Source:

OIE, full page: (LINK).

Code:

[     ]

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Information received on 20/06/2019 from Dr Adrianatus Florentius Maseke, Chief Veterinary Officer, Veterinary Services, Ministry of Agriculture, Water and Forestry, Windhoek, Namibia

  • Summary
    • Report type    Follow-up report No. 1 (Final report)
    • Date of start of the event    02/02/2019
    • Date of confirmation of the event    07/02/2019
    • Report date    20/06/2019
    • Date submitted to OIE    20/06/2019
    • Date event resolved    20/06/2019
    • Reason for notification    First occurrence of a listed disease
    • Manifestation of disease    Clinical disease
    • Causal agent    Highly pathogenic influenza A virus
    • Serotype    H5N8
    • Nature of diagnosis    Clinical, Laboratory (basic)
    • This event pertains to    a defined zone within the country
  • Summary of outbreaks   
    • Total outbreaks: 3
      • Total animals affected: Species    - Susceptible    - Cases    - Deaths    - Killed and disposed of    - Slaughtered
        • Jackass Penguin: Spheniscus demersus(Spheniscidae)  - … – 238    - 238    - 0    - 0
    • Outbreak statistics: Species    - Apparent morbidity rate    - Apparent mortality rate    - Apparent case fatality rate    - Proportion susceptible animals lost*
      • Jackass Penguin: Spheniscus demersus(Spheniscidae)    - **    - **    - 100.00%    - **
        • *Removed from the susceptible population through death, destruction and/or slaughter
        • **Not calculated because of missing information
  • Epidemiology
    • Source of the outbreak(s) or origin of infection   
    • Wild migratory water fowl
  • Epidemiological comments   
    • No more cases were reported and the event is resolved.

(...)

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Keywords: OIE; Updates; Avian Influenza; H5N8 ; Wild Birds; Namibia.

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Highly pathogenic #avian #influenza #H5N2, #Taiwan [three #poultry #outbreaks] (#OIE, June 20 ‘19)


Title:

Highly pathogenic #avian #influenza #H5N2, #Taiwan [three #poultry #outbreaks].

Subject:

Avian Influenza, H5N2 subtype, poultry epizootic in Taiwan.

Source:

OIE, full page: (LINK).

Code:

[     ]

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Information received on 20/06/2019 from Dr Wen-Jane Tu, Chief Veterinary Officer, Deputy Director General, Bureau of Animal and Plant Health Inspection and Quarantine, Council of Agriculture, Executive Yuan, Taipei, Chinese Taipei

  • Summary
    • Report type    Follow-up report No. 136
    • Date of start of the event    07/01/2015
    • Date of confirmation of the event    11/01/2015
    • Report date    18/06/2019
    • Date submitted to OIE    20/06/2019
    • Reason for notification    Recurrence of a listed disease
    • Date of previous occurrence    23/07/2014
    • Manifestation of disease    Clinical disease
    • Causal agent    Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus
    • Serotype    H5N2
    • Nature of diagnosis    Clinical, Laboratory (advanced)
    • This event pertains to    the whole country
  • Summary of outbreaks   
    • Total outbreaks: 3
      • Total animals affected: Species    - Susceptible    - Cases    - Deaths    - Killed and disposed of    - Slaughtered
        • Birds    - 12505    - 596    - 594    - 11911    - 0
    • Outbreak statistics: Species    - Apparent morbidity rate    - Apparent mortality rate    - Apparent case fatality rate    - Proportion susceptible animals lost*
      • Birds    - 4.77%    - 4.75%    - 99.66%    - 100.00%
        • *Removed from the susceptible population through death, destruction and/or slaughter
  • Epidemiology
    • Source of the outbreak(s) or origin of infection   
      • Unknown or inconclusive
  • Epidemiological comments   
    • Samples from Yunlin County were sent to the National Laboratory, Animal Health Research Institute (AHRI) for diagnosis.
    • Highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N2 subtype was confirmed by AHRI.
    • The infected farm in Yunlin County has been placed under movement restriction.
    • All animals on the infected farm have been culled.
    • Thorough cleaning and disinfection have been conducted after stamping out operation.
    • The sampling spot of the discarded geese was also disinfected.
    • Surrounding poultry farms within 3 km radius of the infected farm and the sampling spot are under intensified surveillance for three months.
    • Suspected signs were observed in poultry carcasses during post-mortem inspection in one abattoir in Taipei City.
    • Samples were sent to the AHRI for diagnosis.
    • H5N2 subtype HPAI was confirmed by the AHRI.
    • The carcasses were destroyed and thorough cleaning and disinfection have been conducted in the abattoir.
    • After tracing back to the farm of origin, any positive results will be included in follow-up reports.

(...)

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Keywords: OIE; Updates; Avian Influenza; H5N2 ; Poultry; Taiwan.

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