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8 Jun 2017

#Measures Taken to #Prevent #Zika Virus #Infection During #Pregnancy — #PuertoRico, 2016 (@CDCgov, #MMWR, abstract)


Title: #Measures Taken to #Prevent #Zika Virus #Infection During #Pregnancy — #PuertoRico, 2016.

Subject: Zika Virus Infection & Pregnancy, preventive measures.

Source: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), MMWR Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.

Code: [     ]

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Measures Taken to Prevent Zika Virus Infection During Pregnancy — Puerto Rico, 2016

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Weekly / June 9, 2017 / 66(22);574–578

Format: [ File [117K] ]

Denise V. D’Angelo, MPH1; Beatriz Salvesen von Essen, MPH2; Mark J. Lamias1; Holly Shulman, MA1; Wanda I. Hernandez-Virella, MPH2; Aspy J. Taraporewalla, MS1; Manuel I. Vargas, MD2; Leslie Harrison, MPH1; Sascha R. Ellington, MSPH1; Leslianne Soto, MS2; Tanya Williams, MPH1; Aurea Rodriguez, MPH2; Carrie K. Shapiro-Mendoza, PhD1; Brenda Rivera, DVM3; Shanna Cox, MSPH1; Karen Pazol, PhD1; Marion E. Rice, MPH4; Deborah L. Dee, PhD1; Lisa Romero, DrPH1; Eva Lathrop, MD1; Wanda Barfield, MD1; Ruben A. Smith, PhD1; Denise J. Jamieson, MD1; Margaret A. Honein, PhD4; Carmen Deseda, MD3; Lee Warner, PhD1

1Division of Reproductive Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, CDC; 2Division of Maternal, Child, and Adolescent Health, Puerto Rico Department of Health; 3Office of Epidemiology and Research, Puerto Rico Department of Health; 4Division of Congenital and Developmental Disorders, National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities, CDC.

Corresponding author: Denise V. D’Angelo, DDAngelo@cdc.gov, 770-488-6288.

Suggested citation for this article: D’Angelo DV, Salvesen von Essen B, Lamias MJ, et al. Measures Taken to Prevent Zika Virus Infection During Pregnancy — Puerto Rico, 2016. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2017;66:574–578. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6622a2.


Summary

  • What is known about this topic?
    • Zika virus infection during pregnancy can cause microcephaly, brain abnormalities, and other severe birth defects.
    • Puerto Rico has recorded the largest number of laboratory-confirmed cases of Zika virus infections among pregnant women in the United States, and has implemented strategies to prevent infection during pregnancy and ensure health care provider counseling and testing for Zika virus.
  • What is added by this report?
    • Among women in Puerto Rico who had a recent live birth, 98.1% reported using at least one measure to avoid mosquitos in their home environment during their pregnancy.
    • However, fewer than half of women reported wearing mosquito repellent daily (45.8%), and only one in 10 reported wearing pants and shirts with long sleeves daily.
    • Among sexually active pregnant women, 38.5% reported abstaining from sex or using condoms consistently throughout pregnancy.
    • Most women (94.3%) also reported that their health care provider talked to them about Zika virus infection during pregnancy, and approximately three quarters of respondents (76.9%) reported being tested for Zika virus by their health care provider during the first or second trimester of pregnancy.
  • What are the implications for public health practice?
    • Women in Puerto Rico have high levels of concern about acquiring Zika virus infection during pregnancy, and health care providers are counseling them about Zika virus prevention.
    • However, additional measures are needed to encourage consistent use of preventive measures throughout pregnancy and increase testing for Zika virus during pregnancy.


Abstract

Zika virus infection during pregnancy remains a serious health threat in Puerto Rico. Infection during pregnancy can cause microcephaly, brain abnormalities, and other severe birth defects (1). From January 1, 2016 through March 29, 2017, Puerto Rico reported approximately 3,300 pregnant women with laboratory evidence of possible Zika virus infection (2). There is currently no vaccine or intervention to prevent the adverse effects of Zika virus infection during pregnancy; therefore, prevention has been the focus of public health activities, especially for pregnant women (3). CDC and the Puerto Rico Department of Health analyzed data from the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System Zika Postpartum Emergency Response (PRAMS-ZPER) survey conducted from August through December 2016 among Puerto Rico residents with a live birth. Most women (98.1%) reported using at least one measure to avoid mosquitos in their home environment. However, only 45.8% of women reported wearing mosquito repellent daily, and 11.5% reported wearing pants and shirts with long sleeves daily. Approximately one third (38.5%) reported abstaining from sex or using condoms consistently throughout pregnancy. Overall, 76.9% of women reported having been tested for Zika virus by their health care provider during the first or second trimester of pregnancy. These results can be used to assess and refine Zika virus infection prevention messaging and interventions for pregnant women and to reinforce measures to promote prenatal testing for Zika.


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Keywords: US CDC; USA; Updates; Puerto Rico; Zika Virus; Pregnancy.

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