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#Avian #Influenza #H7N9 in #China: Preventing the Next #SARS (@WHO, Apr. 2 ‘17)

  Title : #Avian #Influenza #H7N9 in #China: Preventing the Next #SARS. Subject : Avian Influenza, H7N9 subtype (Asian Lineage), poultry e...

31 May 2017

#Avian #Influenza #H7N9 – #Situation #Update as of 31 May 2017 (#FAO, edited)


Title: #Avian #Influenza #H7N9 – #Situation #Update as of 31 May 2017.

Subject: Avian Influenza, H7N9 subtype, poultry enzootic and human cases in China.

Source: Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), full page: (LINK).

Code: [     ][     ]

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Avian Influenza H7N9 – Situation Update as of 31 May 2017

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The next update will be issued on 7 June 2017


Disclaimer

Information provided herein is current as of the date of issue. Information added or changed since the last H7N9 situation update appears in red. Human cases are depicted in the geographic location of their report. For some cases, exposure may have occurred in one geographic location but reported in another. For cases with unknown onset date, reporting date was used instead. FAO compiles information drawn from multiple national (Ministries of Agriculture or Livestock, Ministries of Health, Provincial Government websites; Centers for Disease Prevention and Control [CDC]) and international sources (World Health Organization [WHO], World Organisation for Animal Health [OIE]) as well as peer-reviewed scientific articles. FAO makes every effort to ensure, but does not guarantee, accuracy, completeness or authenticity of the information. The designation employed and the presentation of material on the map do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of FAO concerning the legal or constitutional status of any country, territory or sea area, or concerning the delimitation of frontiers.


Overview

  • Situation:
    • Influenza A(H7N9) virus with pandemic potential.
  • Country:
    • China; three human cases originated in China and were reported in Malaysia (1) and Canada (2).
  • Number of human cases:
    • 1532 confirmed; 581 deaths (since February 2013).
  • Number of new findings in birds or the environment since last update (24 May 2017):
    • 16
  • Number of new human cases since last update (24 May 2017):
    • 7.
  • Provinces/municipalities:
    • [China]
      • Beijing,
      • Chongqing,
      • Shanghai and
      • Tianjin Municipalities;
      • Anhui,
      • Fujian,
      • Gansu,
      • Guangdong,
      • Guizhou,
      • Hebei,
      • Henan,
      • Hubei,
      • Hunan,
      • Jiangsu,
      • Jiangxi,
      • Jilin,
      • Liaoning,
      • Qinghai,
      • Shaanxi,
      • Shanxi,
      • Shandong,
      • Sichuan,
      • Yunnan and
      • Zhejiang Provinces;
      • Hong Kong SAR;
      • Macao SAR,
      • Guangxi,
      • Inner Mongolia,
      • Ningxia Hui,
      • Tibet and
      • Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Regions
    • [Taiwan];
    • [Malaysia]
      • Sabah;
    • [Canada]
      • British Columbia.
  • Animal/environmental findings:
    • around 2,500 virological samples from the environment, chickens, pigeons, ducks and a tree sparrow tested positive; positives mainly from live bird markets, vendors and some commercial or breeding farms.
  • Highly pathogenic virus findings:
    • The H7N9 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus was detected in a total of 44 poultry or environmental samples (33 chickens, 1 duck and 10 environmental samples) from 23 live bird markets (LBMs) in:
      • Fujian (Longyan City),
      • Guangdong (Dongguan, Guangzhou, Huizhou, Lufeng, Meijiang, Meizhou, Zhongshan Cities and Haifeng County),
      • Hunan (Chenzhou City) and
      • Guangxi (Guilin City) Provinces;
    • and from 6 farms in:
    • Out of the 1532 confirmed human cases, H7N9 virus isolates from three human cases (two from Guangdong and one from Taiwan Provinces) were found to be highly pathogenic for chickens.
  • FAO actions:
    • liaise with China and partners, monitor situation, monitor virus evolution, conduct market chain analysis, risk assessment, surveillance guidance and communication.


Map 1. Human cases and positive findings in birds or the environment

Human cases and positive findings in birds or the environment

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|-- Click to enlarge –|

Note: Human cases are depicted in the geographic location where they were reported; for some cases, exposure may have occurred in a different geographic location. Precise location of 24 human cases in Anhui (2), Beijing (2), Guangdong (1), Guangxi (1), Hebei (3), Hunan (1), Hubei (2), Jiangsu (1), Jiangxi (6), Sichuan (2) and Zhejiang (3) Provinces are currently not known, these cases are therefore not shown on the map.


Situation update

  • Animals
    • 30 May, Shaanxi:
      • One H7N9 outbreak was confirmed in a chicken layer farm of Yuyang District, Yulin City by the National Reference Laboratory.
      • Onset was on 23 May, when birds started to die in large numbers, and on 25 May accumulated poultry deaths reached 22,000; laboratory confirmation whether it was the HPAI virus is still awaited [reference 1, reference 2].
    • 24 May, Tianjin:
      • The H7N9 influenza outbreak observed on 13 May in a chicken layer farm in Wuqing District was confirmed to be due to the highly pathogenic strain.
      • About 10,000 chickens showed clinical signs consistent with avian influenza and 6,000 died; 93,150 poultry were culled [reference 1; reference 2].
    • 27 May, the Chinese Ministry of Agriculture issued the monthly surveillance report for April.
      • A total of 210,436 samples (156,933 serum samples + 53,503 virology samples) have been collected from 8,183 locations in 27 provinces: 14 virology samples tested positive for H7N9 virus (12 chicken and 2 environmental samples) from 8 LBMs, 1 household, 1 farm, and 1 slaughterhouse in Beijing, Fujian, Gansu, Henan, Hebei, Liaoning, and Zhejiang Provinces as well as Guangxi and Tibet Autonomous Regions; 764 serum samples (701 chickens, 51 ducks and 12 geese) tested positive for H7 antibodies in Beijing and Chongqing, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Henan, Hunan, Jiangsu and Sichuan.
      • Seropositive birds were mainly from farms/households (chicken from 169, duck from 9 and geese from 3 farms/households) and 8 live bird markets [reference].
  • Humans
    • Since the last update (24 May 2017), 7 new human cases have been reported in:
      • Sichuan (2),
      • Beijing (1),
      • Hebei (1),
      • Hubei (1),
      • Jiangsu (1),
      • Zhejiang (1).
    • For detailed information on human cases, please refer to WHO's Disease Outbreak News.


Figure 1. Number of positive virological samples from birds or the environment, by province and origin as of 31 May 2017. Information provided corresponds to both high and low pathogenic H7N9 viruses.

Number of positive virological samples from birds or the environment, by province* and origin

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|-- Click to enlarge –|


Figure 2. Number of officially reported human cases since February 2013 as of 31 May 2017. Information provided corresponds to both high and low pathogenic H7N9 viruses.

Number of officially reported human cases since February 2013

|-- Click to enlarge –|


Figure 3. Incidence of officially reported human cases by month, based on onset date as of 31 May 2017. Information provided corresponds to both high and low pathogenic H7N9 viruses.

Incidence of officially reported human cases by week, based on onset date

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|-- Click to enlarge –|

Note: For cases with unknown onset dates from wave 1 (n=7), wave 2 (n=2), wave 3 (n=146), wave 4 (n= 27) and wave 5 (n=189) reporting dates were used instead.


Publications

  • In addition to the surveillance findings by MoA and MoH, 1,728 virologically positive samples have also been reported in 12 peer-reviewed articles (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12). A total of 71,920 samples have been collected in these studies since April 2013, of which 1,728 (2.4%) were positive for H7N9 (1,215 environmental samples, 501 chickens, 1 goose and 1 tree sparrow).
  • A study identified a cluster of H7N9 viruses circulating in ducks before the first report of H7N9 in early 2013 and genetically different from the zoonotic H7N9 lineage. The introduction of a specific PB2 mutation to the duck H7N9 virus led to increased pathogenicity in mice. The induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines were associated with increased severity of infection [reference].
  • A study found evidence that avian influenza A(H7N9) virus reassorted with subtypes H6N6 and H5N6 according to genetic analysis. This finding suggests that H7N9 viruses have expanded the gene pool from which they fish novel internal genes. Novel reassortment with other viruses can increase the genetic diversity of H7N9, and thus might help novel reassortants in gaining higher fitness to human adaptation [reference].


FAO’s support to countries


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Keywords: Avian Influenza; China; FAO; Updates; H7N9; Human; Poultry.

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