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#Avian #Influenza #H7N9 in #China: Preventing the Next #SARS (@WHO, Apr. 2 ‘17)

  Title : #Avian #Influenza #H7N9 in #China: Preventing the Next #SARS. Subject : Avian Influenza, H7N9 subtype (Asian Lineage), poultry e...

12 Apr 2017

#Global #Avian #Influenza #H7N9 #situation #update as of 12 April 2017 (#FAO, edited)

 

Title: #Global #Avian #Influenza #H7N9 #situation #update as of 12 April 2017.

Subject: Avian Influenza, H7N9 subtype (Asian Lineage), poultry enzootic and human cases in China.

Source: Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), full page: (LINK).

Code: [     ][     ]

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Global Avian Influenza H7N9 situation update as of 12 April 2017

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The next update will be issued on 26 April 2017

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Disclaimer

Information provided herein is current as of the date of issue. Information added or changed since the last H7N9 situation update appears in red. Human cases are depicted in the geographic location of their report. For some cases, exposure may have occurred in one geographic location but reported in another. For cases with unknown onset date, reporting date was used instead. FAO compiles information drawn from multiple national (Ministries of Agriculture or Livestock, Ministries of Health, Provincial Government websites; Centers for Disease Prevention and Control [CDC]) and international sources (World Health Organization [WHO], World Organisation for Animal Health [OIE]) as well as peer-reviewed scientific articles. FAO makes every effort to ensure, but does not guarantee, accuracy, completeness or authenticity of the information. The designation employed and the presentation of material on the map do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of FAO concerning the legal or constitutional status of any country, territory or sea area, or concerning the delimitation of frontiers.

 

Overview

  • Situation:
    • Influenza A(H7N9) virus with pandemic potential.
  • Country:
    • China; three human cases originated in China and were reported in Malaysia (1) and Canada (2).
  • Number of human cases:
    • 1397 confirmed; 535 deaths (since February 2013).
  • Number of new findings in birds or the environment since last update (12 April 2017): 2.
  • Number of new human cases since last update (12 April 2017): 16.
  • Provinces/municipalities:
    • [China]
      • Beijing,
      • Chongqing,
      • Shanghai and
      • Tianjin municipalities;
      • Anhui,
      • Fujian,
      • Gansu,
      • Guangdong,
      • Guizhou,
      • Hebei,
      • Henan,
      • Hubei,
      • Hunan,
      • Jiangsu,
      • Jiangxi,
      • Jilin,
      • Liaoning,
      • Qinghai,
      • Shandong,
      • Sichuan,
      • Yunnan and
      • Zhejiang Provinces;
      • Hong Kong SAR;
      • Macao SAR,
      • Guangxi,
      • Ningxia Hui,
      • Tibet and
      • Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Regions;
    • [Taiwan],
    • [Malaysia]
      • Sabah;
    • [Canada]
      • British Columbia.
  • Animal/environmental findings:
    • around 2,500 virological samples from the environment, chickens, pigeons, ducks and a tree sparrow tested positive; positives mainly from live bird markets, vendors and some commercial or breeding farms.
  • Highly pathogenic virus findings:
    • Out of the 1397 confirmed human cases, H7N9 virus isolates from three cases (two from Guangdong and one from Taiwan Provinces) were found to be highly pathogenic for chickens.
    • In addition, the H7N9 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus was detected in 16 chicken and 6 environmental samples from Guangdong Province and from a large farm in Hunan Province [reference].
  • Note:
    • The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) National Veterinary Services Laboratories (NVSL) have confirmed a H7N9 highly pathogenic (Tennessee), and a H7N9 low pathogenic avian influenza virus (Tennessee, Alabama, Kentucky).
    • Sequencing of the genome confirmed that they are of North American wild bird lineage origin.
    • These viruses are thus not the same as the ones currently circulating in China. [reference1, reference 2, reference 3, reference 4, reference 5]
  • FAO actions:
    • liaise with China and partners, monitor situation, monitor virus evolution, conduct market chain analysis, risk assessment, surveillance guidance and communication.

 

Map 1. Human cases and positive findings in birds or the environment

Human cases and positive findings in birds or the environment

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|—Click on image to enlarge –|

Note: Human cases are depicted in the geographic location where they were reported; for some cases, exposure may have occurred in a different geographic location. Precise location of 21 human cases in Anhui (2), Beijing (1), Guangdong (1), Guangxi (1), Hebei (2), Hunan (1), Hubei (2), Jiangsu (1), Jiangxi (5), Sichuan (2) and Zhejiang (3) Provinces are currently not known, these cases are therefore not shown on the map.

 

Situation update

  • Animals
    • 3 April, Tibet
      • Following detection of the first human case, live poultry trade has been suspended [reference].
      • On 10 March, the MOA released information on inter-provincial domestic trade: from 27 March to 2 April, about 91 million live poultries were traded between Chinese provinces [reference].
    • Guangdong:
      • Jieyang City, live bird markets in the entire city were suspended from 1 to 3 April [reference].
    • Hunan:
      • Huaihua City, Huaihua Central market and live bird shops nearby in Hecheng District were temporarily suspended from 8 to 29 April [reference].
    • Jiangxi:
      • Yichun City, the suspension of live poultry trading areas has been extended until 30 April in entire Shanggao County [reference].
    • Sichuan:
      • Ziyang City, following the detection of a human case, markets trading and/or slaughtering live birds are suspended in the city center and parts of the townships [reference].
  • Humans
    • Since the last update (5 April 2017), 16 new human cases have been reported in:
      • Beijing (3),
      • Hunan (2),
      • Jiangsu (2),
      • Anhui (1),
      • Fujian (1),
      • Gansu (1),
      • Guizhou (1),
      • Henan (1),
      • Shandong (1),
      • Sichuan (1),
      • Tibet (1),
      • Zhejiang (1).
    • For detailed information on human cases, please refer to WHO's Disease Outbreak News.

 

Figure 1. Number of positive virological samples from birds or the environment, by province and origin as of 12 April 2017. Information provided corresponds to both high and low pathogenic H7N9 viruses.

Number of positive virological samples from birds or the environment, by province* and origin

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|—Click on image to enlarge –|

 

Figure 2. Number of officially reported human cases since February 2013 as of 12 April 2017. Information provided corresponds to both high and low pathogenic H7N9 viruses.

Number of officially reported human cases since February 2013

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|—Click on image to enlarge –|

 

Figure 3. Incidence of officially reported human cases by month, based on onset date as of 12 April 2017. Information provided corresponds to both high and low pathogenic H7N9 viruses.

Incidence of officially reported human cases by week, based on onset date

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|—Click on image to enlarge –|

Note: For cases with unknown onset dates from wave 1 (n=7), wave 2 (n=2), wave 3 (n=146), wave 4 (n= 27) and wave 5 (n=483) reporting dates were used instead.

 

Publications

  • In addition to the surveillance findings by MoA and MoH, 1,728 virologically positive samples have also been reported in 12 peer-reviewed articles (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12).
    • A total of 71,920 samples have been collected in these studies since April 2013, of which 1,728 (2.4%) were positive for H7N9 (1,215 environmental samples, 501 chickens, 1 goose and 1 tree sparrow).
  • Genetic relationships between three Eurasian H7 avian influenza viruses and their cross-protective efficacy as vaccines were evaluated.
    • While each vaccine induced group-specific antibody responses and cross-protective efficacy, only Anhui1/13 was able to cross-protect immunized hosts against lethal challenge across groups [reference].
  • A comparative study of the five different H7N9 waves in Jiangsu was performed.
    • The environmental H7N9 virus detection rate was found significantly elevated in Jiangsu during the current wave (peaked at 18,5% compared to 3-4% in previous waves).
    • Increased detection of H7N9 virus in environmental samples collected during summer 2016 was noticed [reference].

 

FAO’s support to countries

 

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Keywords: FAO; Updates; Avian Influenza; H7N9; Human; China.

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