Title: #Avian #Influenza #H7N9–#situation #update as of 26 April 2017.
Subject: Avian Influenza, H7N9 subtype, poultry enzootic and human cases in China.
Source: Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), full page: (LINK).
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Avian Influenza H7N9 - situation update as of 26 April 2017
The next update will be issued on 3 May 2017
Information provided herein is current as of the date of issue. Information added or changed since the last H7N9 situation update appears in red. Human cases are depicted in the geographic location of their report. For some cases, exposure may have occurred in one geographic location but reported in another. For cases with unknown onset date, reporting date was used instead. FAO compiles information drawn from multiple national (Ministries of Agriculture or Livestock, Ministries of Health, Provincial Government websites; Centers for Disease Prevention and Control [CDC]) and international sources (World Health Organization [WHO], World Organisation for Animal Health [OIE]) as well as peer-reviewed scientific articles. FAO makes every effort to ensure, but does not guarantee, accuracy, completeness or authenticity of the information. The designation employed and the presentation of material on the map do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of FAO concerning the legal or constitutional status of any country, territory or sea area, or concerning the delimitation of frontiers.
- Influenza A(H7N9) virus with pandemic potential.
- China; three human cases originated in China and were reported in Malaysia (1) and Canada (2).
- Number of human cases:
- 1444 confirmed; 545 deaths (since February 2013).
- Number of new findings in birds or the environment since last update (12 April 2017):
- Number of new human cases since last update (12 April 2017):
- Shanghai and
- Tianjin Municipalities;
- Yunnan and
- Zhejiang Provinces;
- Hong Kong SAR;
- Macao SAR,
- Ningxia Hui,
- Tibet and
- Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Regions;
- British Columbia.
- around 2,500 virological samples from the environment, chickens, pigeons, ducks and a tree sparrow tested positive; positives mainly from live bird markets, vendors and some commercial or breeding farms.
- Out of the 1444 confirmed human cases, H7N9 virus isolates from three cases (two from Guangdong and one from Taiwan Provinces) were found to be highly pathogenic for chickens.
- The H7N9 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus was detected in a total of 41 poultry or environmental samples (30 chickens, 1 duck and 10 environmental samples) from 23 live bird markets (LBMs) in:
- Fujian (Longyan City),
- Guangdong (Dongguan, Guangzhou, Huizhou, Lufeng, Meijiang, Meizhou, Zhongshan Cities and Haifeng County),
- Guangxi (Guilin City) and
- Hunan (Chenzhou City) Provinces;
- and from 3 farms in:
- Guangxi (Guilin City) and Hunan (backyard in Chenzhou City and a large farm in Yongzhou City [reference]) Provinces.
- liaise with China and partners, monitor situation, monitor virus evolution, conduct market chain analysis, risk assessment, surveillance guidance and communication.
Map 1. Human cases and positive findings in birds or the environment
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Note: Human cases are depicted in the geographic location where they were reported; for some cases, exposure may have occurred in a different geographic location. Precise location of 22 human cases in Anhui (2), Beijing (1), Guangdong (1), Guangxi (1), Hebei (2), Hunan (1), Hubei (2), Jiangsu (1), Jiangxi (6), Sichuan (2) and Zhejiang (3) Provinces are currently not known, these cases are therefore not shown on the map.
- The Chinese Ministry of Agriculture issued a notice on the strengthening of inter-province poultry movement control.
- This was put in force on 14 April to prevent and control the spread of H7N9 virus.
- The different measures listed are:
- quarantine certification,
- sample collection before poultry movement (a minimum of 30 samples per flock),
- requirements for test and culling,
- the role of farmers and veterinary authorities during active and passive surveillance and also the illegal use of vaccines [reference].
- The following key measures were taken:
- In January and February 2017, 445,000 animal samples were collected in 19,000 sites across the country and 97 samples from 56 LBMs and 7 farms in 8 provinces tested positive for H7N9 virus.
- Inspection and supervision of LBMs were intensified in affected provinces to enhance biosecurity.
- The collaboration among the different ministries and local departments involved in H7N9 surveillance, investigation and emergency response has been strengthened.
- The National Avian Influenza Reference Laboratory and other relevant institutes have been mobilized to monitor the spread of the H7N9 virus, and conduct research and evaluation on animal H7N9 vaccine. A new pathogen detection method has been established for H7N9 mutant strains.
- 24 April, Fujian and Guangxi provinces reported for the first time the H7N9 HPAI strain in poultry. H7N9 HPAI positive samples were detected in 1 LBM in Fujian and 1 farm in Guangxi, both in chicken samples.
- 17 April, Guangdong: Yangjiang city CDC carried out environmental monitoring in Jiangcheng District, out of 60 samples collected 3 tested positive for H7N9 virus nucleic acid. LBMs (including wholesale and retail) were closed from 21 to 23 April 2017 [reference].
- 30 March, Fujian: a live poultry sample from Chengdong market tested positive for H7N9 virus [reference].
- Temporary suspension of live bird markets in Luodian County, Qiannan Buyei and Miao Autonomous Prefecture was extended until 1 May [reference].
- Temporary suspension of all LBMs in Qingyuan City from 10 to 16 April [reference].
- Citywide temporary suspension of LBMs from 21 to 23 April in Yiangjiang city due to the detection of three positive environmental samples by the city CDC [reference].
- All live bird trading areas in Xunwu County, Guangzhou city are still closed until 30 April [reference].
- Temporary suspension of live poultry trading places in Dingnan County (Ganzhou city) was extended until 30 April [reference].
- Since the last update (12 April 2017), 47 new human cases have been reported in:
- Beijing (8),
- Sichuan (8),
- Hunan (6),
- Hebei (5),
- Shandong (4),
- Zhejiang (3),
- Gansu (2),
- Henan (2),
- Tibet (2),
- Anhui (1),
- Chongqing (1),
- Guangxi (1),
- Jiangxi (1),
- Jilin (1),
- Liaoning (1),
- Tianjin (1).
Figure 1. Number of positive virological samples from birds or the environment, by province and origin as of 26 April 2017. Information provided corresponds to both high and low pathogenic H7N9 viruses.
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Figure 2. Number of officially reported human cases since February 2013 as of 26 April 2017. Information provided corresponds to both high and low pathogenic H7N9 viruses.
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Figure 3. Incidence of officially reported human cases by month, based on onset date as of 26 April 2017. Information provided corresponds to both high and low pathogenic H7N9 viruses.
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Note: For cases with unknown onset dates from wave 1 (n=7), wave 2 (n=2), wave 3 (n=146), wave 4 (n= 27) and wave 5 (n=527) reporting dates were used instead.
- In addition to the surveillance findings by MoA and MoH, 1,728 virologically positive samples have also been reported in 12 peer-reviewed articles (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12). A total of 71,920 samples have been collected in these studies since April 2013, of which 1,728 (2.4%) were positive for H7N9 (1,215 environmental samples, 501 chickens, 1 goose and 1 tree sparrow).
- Case records of confirmed human cases of influenza A(H7N9) infection reported in Hong Kong SAR in the 2013-2014 winter season were reviewed: severe cases had a significantly longer viral shedding duration than mild cases, and a delayed administration of antiviral treatment may be associated with more severe illness. No secondary case was identified suggesting limited human-to-human transmission [reference].
FAO’s support to countries
- FAO continues supporting at-risk countries with surveillance and preparedness for H7N9 incursion
- FAO is providing surveillance and sampling guidance for South and Southeast Asia
- Funding to date: US$ 8.1 million mobilized (US$ 6.7 million USAID, US$ 1.9 million TCPs)
Keywords: FAO; Updates; H7N9; Avian Influenza; Human; China.