Title: Baseline #Prevalence of #Birth #Defects Associated with Congenital #Zika Virus #Infection — #Massachusetts, N. Carolina, & Atlanta, GA, 2013–14 (@CDCgov, MMWR).
Subject: Zika Virus Infection and Zika Congenital Infection, birth defects.
Source: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), MMWR Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, full page: (LINK). Abstract.
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Baseline Prevalence of Birth Defects Associated with Congenital Zika Virus Infection — Massachusetts, North Carolina, and Atlanta, Georgia, 2013–2014
Weekly / March 3, 2017 / 66(8);219–222
Format: [ PDF [85 KB] ]
Janet D. Cragan, MD1; Cara T. Mai, DrPH1; Emily E. Petersen, MD2; Rebecca F. Liberman, MPH3; Nina E. Forestieri, MPH4; Alissa C. Stevens, MPH5; Augustina Delaney, PhD1; April L. Dawson, MPH1; Sascha R. Ellington, MSPH2; Carrie K. Shapiro-Mendoza, PhD2; Julie E. Dunn, PhD3; Cathleen A. Higgins3; Robert E. Meyer, PhD4; Tonya Williams, PhD5; Kara N.D. Polen, MPH1; Kim Newsome, MPH1; Megan Reynolds, MPH1; Jennifer Isenburg, MSPH1; Suzanne M. Gilboa, PhD1; Dana M. Meaney-Delman, MD6; Cynthia A. Moore, MD, PhD1; Coleen A. Boyle, PhD7; Margaret A. Honein, PhD1
Corresponding author: Janet D. Cragan, email@example.com, 404-639-3286.
1Division of Congenital and Developmental Disorders, National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities, CDC; 2Division of Reproductive Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, CDC; 3Center for Birth Defects Research and Prevention, Massachusetts Department of Public Health; 4Birth Defects Monitoring Program, North Carolina Department of Health and Human Services; 5Division of Human Development and Disability, National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities, CDC; 6Office of the Director, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Diseases, CDC; 7Office of the Director, National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities, CDC.
Suggested citation for this article: Cragan JD, Mai CT, Petersen EE, et al. Baseline Prevalence of Birth Defects Associated with Congenital Zika Virus Infection — Massachusetts, North Carolina, and Atlanta, Georgia, 2013–2014. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2017;66:219–222. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6608a4.
- What is already known about this topic?
- Zika virus infection causes serious brain abnormalities; however, the birth defects observed are not unique to congenital Zika virus infection, and the full range of effects of congenital Zika infection is not known.
- What is added by this report?
- CDC used data from population-based birth defects surveillance programs in Massachusetts, North Carolina, and Atlanta, Georgia, to retrospectively assess the prevalence of birth defects during 2013–2014 that met the surveillance case definition for birth defects potentially related to Zika virus infection, before introduction of Zika virus into the United States.
- After introduction of Zika virus, the proportion of infants and fetuses with birth defects born to mothers with laboratory evidence of possible Zika infection reported by the US Zika Pregnancy Registry during January 15–September 22, 2016, was approximately 20 times higher than the prevalence of potentially Zika-related birth defects among pregnancies during the pre-Zika years.
- What are the implications for public health practice?
- Data on birth defects in the pre-Zika years serve as benchmarks to direct rapid ascertainment and reporting of birth defects potentially related to Zika virus infection.
- The higher proportion of these defects among pregnancies with laboratory evidence of possible Zika virus infection supports the relationship between congenital Zika virus infection and birth defects.
Zika virus infection during pregnancy can cause serious brain abnormalities, but the full range of adverse outcomes is unknown (1). To better understand the impact of birth defects resulting from Zika virus infection, the CDC surveillance case definition established in 2016 for birth defects potentially related to Zika virus infection* (2) was retrospectively applied to population-based birth defects surveillance data collected during 2013–2014 in three areas before the introduction of Zika virus (the pre-Zika years) into the World Health Organization’s Region of the Americas (Americas) (3). These data, from Massachusetts (2013), North Carolina (2013), and Atlanta, Georgia (2013–2014), included 747 infants and fetuses with one or more of the birth defects meeting the case definition (pre-Zika prevalence = 2.86 per 1,000 live births). Brain abnormalities or microcephaly were the most frequently recorded (1.50 per 1,000), followed by neural tube defects and other early brain malformations† (0.88), eye abnormalities without mention of a brain abnormality (0.31), and other consequences of central nervous system (CNS) dysfunction without mention of brain or eye abnormalities (0.17). During January 15–September 22, 2016, the U.S. Zika Pregnancy Registry (USZPR) reported 26 infants and fetuses with these same defects among 442 completed pregnancies (58.8 per 1,000) born to mothers with laboratory evidence of possible Zika virus infection during pregnancy (2). Although the ascertainment methods differed, this finding was approximately 20 times higher than the proportion of one or more of the same birth defects among pregnancies during the pre-Zika years. These data demonstrate the importance of population-based surveillance for interpreting data about birth defects potentially related to Zika virus infection.
Keywords: US CDC; USA; Updates; Zika Virus; Zika Congenital Infection.