Title: #Avian #Influenza #H7N9 – Situation #update as of 15 March 2017.
Subject: Avian Influenza, H7N9 subtype, poultry enzootic and human cases in China.
Source: Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), full page: (LINK).
Code: [ ]
Avian Influenza H7N9 – Situation update as of 15 March 2017
The next update will be issued on 22 March 2017
Information provided herein is current as of the date of issue. Information added or changed since the last H7N9 situation update appears in red. Human cases are depicted in the geographic location of their report. For some cases, exposure may have occurred in one geographic location but reported in another. For cases with unknown onset date, reporting date was used instead. FAO compiles information drawn from multiple national (Ministries of Agriculture or Livestock, Ministries of Health, Provincial Government websites; Centers for Disease Prevention and Control [CDC]) and international sources (World Health Organization [WHO], World Organisation for Animal Health [OIE]) as well as peer-reviewed scientific articles. FAO makes every effort to ensure, but does not guarantee, accuracy, completeness or authenticity of the information. The designation employed and the presentation of material on the map do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of FAO concerning the legal or constitutional status of any country, territory or sea area, or concerning the delimitation of frontiers.
- Influenza A(H7N9) virus with pandemic potential.
- China; three human cases originated in China and were reported in Malaysia (1) and Canada (2).
- Number of human cases:
- 1320 confirmed; 492 deaths (since February 2013)
- Shanghai and
- Tianjin municipalities;
- Yunnan and
- Hong Kong SAR;
- Macao SAR,
- Ningxia Hui and
- Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Regions
- British Columbia.
- Animal/environmental findings:
- over 2,000 virological samples from the environment, chickens, pigeons, ducks and a tree sparrow tested positive; positives mainly from live bird markets, vendors and some commercial or breeding farms.
- Highly pathogenic virus findings:
- Out of the 1292 confirmed human cases, H7N9 virus isolates from three cases (two from Guangdong and one from Taiwan Provinces) were found to be highly pathogenic for chickens.
- In addition, the H7N9 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus was detected in 16 chicken and 6 environmental samples from Guangdong Province.
- The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) National Veterinary Services Laboratories (NVSL) have confirmed a H7N9 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus in a chicken sample from Lincoln County and a H7N9 low pathogenic avian influenza virus from Giles County, Tennessee.
- Sequencing of the genome confirmed that they are of North American wild bird lineage origin.
- These viruses are thus not the same as the ones currently circulating in China. [reference 1, reference 2]
- FAO actions:
- liaise with China and partners, monitor situation, monitor virus evolution, conduct market chain analysis, risk assessment, surveillance guidance and communication.
Map. Human cases and positive findings in birds or the environment
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Note: Human cases are depicted in the geographic location where they were reported; for some cases, exposure may have occurred in a different geographic location. Precise location of 16 human cases in Anhui (1), Beijing (1), Guangdong (1), Hunan (1), Hubei (2), Jiangsu (1), Jiangxi (5), Sichuan (2) and Zhejiang (2) Provinces are currently not known, these cases are therefore not shown on the map.
- Guangdong Province:
- From 3 to 9 March, 939 environment samples were collected in 98 bird markets of the entire province, 78 tested positive for H7 [reference].
- From 22 to 28 February, Guangdong provincial CDC collected 855 environmental samples from 27 markets in 9 cities (i.e. Chaozhou, Foshan, Huizhou, Maoming, Meizhou, Shanwei, Shenzhen, Yangjiang and Zhuhai): 83 samples tested positive for H7 subtype [reference].
- Jiangmen city: the temporary suspension of live bird markets which started on 3 March ended in Jiangmen City area, Pengjiang District, Kaiping and Taishan Cities [reference 1, reference 2, reference 3, reference 4].
- On 1 March, live bird markets in Heshan City and Xinhui District were closed after the detection of H7 nucleic acid by Jiangmen City CDC; the suspension is over in Heshan City but still ongoing for Xinhui District [reference 1, reference 2].
- Quingyuan City: Temporary suspension of all live bird markets and live bird trade in the city from 14 to 16 March (3 days) [reference].
- Dongguan City: routine suspension of live bird markets from 15 to 18 March (4 days) [reference].
- Huizhou City: in the period 8 March to 30 April, live bird markets in Huiyang District will open every day only from 6:00 a.m. to 1:00 p.m., cleaning and disinfection will be performed after each day closure [reference].
- Zhanjiang City: all live bird markets are closed from 11 to 17 March after Zhanjiang City CDC found a H7 nucleic acid positive sample in some live bird markets on 10 March [reference].
- Zhuhai City: live bird trade was suspended from 4 to 6 March in Yongchang market (Ganwu town), Doumen District, Nanshui market (Gaolangang District) and Jinding market (Gaoxin District) after they tested positive for H7 [reference].
- Jiangxi Province:
- From 9 March onwards, live bird markets under the jurisdiction of the Yushui, Gaoxin, and Xiannuhu Districts are closed for two weeks due to a recent human case of H7N9 infection detected in Xinyu City [reference].
- Pingxiang city: temporary closure of live bird markets in Luxi County for prevention; no re-opening date was communicated yet [reference].
- Fujian Province:
- from 5 to 20 March, citywide temporary suspension of live bird trade in Ningde City after one human case of H7N9 was confirmed in Jiaocheng District [reference].
- Zhejiang Province:
- in Lishui city, live bird markets are still suspended since 25 January due to H7N9 positive environment samples found in Zhongxincai, Hechuancai and Shawancai markets. No re-opening date has been communicated [reference].
- Since the last update (08 March 2017), 28 new human cases have been reported in:
- Jiangxi (9),
- Henan (4),
- Jiangsu (3),
- Guangxi (3),
- Sichuan (3),
- Guizhou (2),
- Hunan (2),
- Fujian (1), and
- Hubei (1).
- For detailed information on human cases, please refer to WHO's Disease Outbreak News.
Figure 1. Number of positive virological samples from birds or the environment, by province and origin as of 15 March 2017. Information provided corresponds to both high and low pathogenic H7N9 viruses.
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Figure 2. Number of officially reported human cases since February 2013 as of 15 March 2017. Information provided corresponds to both high and low pathogenic H7N9 viruses.
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Figure 3. Incidence of officially reported human cases by month, based on onset date as of 15 March 2017. Information provided corresponds to both high and low pathogenic H7N9 viruses.
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Note: For cases with unknown onset dates from wave 1 (n=7), wave 2 (n=2), wave 3 (n=146), wave 4 (n= 27) and wave 5 (n=406) reporting dates were used instead.
- In addition to the surveillance findings by MoA and MoH, 1,728 virologically positive samples have also been reported in 12 peer-reviewed articles (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12).
- A total of 71,920 samples have been collected in these studies since April 2013, of which 1,728 (2.4%) were positive for H7N9 (1,215 environmental samples, 501 chickens, 1 goose and 1 tree sparrow).
- A study aimed at assessing the mortality risks for human infection with high (HPAI) and low (LPAI) pathogenicity avian influenza viruses, namely H5N6, H5N1, H7N9 and H9N2.
- The HPAI case fatality rate (CFR) was far higher than the LPAI CFR.
- Old age, comorbidities, delayed confirmation, along with poultry exposure are the major risks contributing to fatal outcomes in human HPAI and LPAI infections [reference].
FAO’s support to countries
- FAO continues supporting at-risk countries with surveillance and preparedness for H7N9 incursion
- FAO is providing surveillance and sampling guidance for South and Southeast Asia
- Funding to date: US$ 8.1 million mobilized (US$ 6.7 million USAID, US$ 1.9 million TCPs)
Keywords: FAO; Updates; Avian Influenza; H7N9; Human; Poultry; China.