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7 Feb 2017

#Avian #Influenza #H5N8–#Global situation #update as of 06 February 2017 (#FAO, edited)

 

Title: #Avian #Influenza #H5N8–#Global situation #update as of 06 February 2017.

Subject: Avian Influenza, H5N8 subtype, global panzootic in poultry and wild birds.

Source: Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), full page: (LINK).

Code: [     ][     ]

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Avian Influenza H5N8 - Global situation update as of 06 February 2017

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Disclaimer

Information provided herein is current as of the date of issue. Information added or changed since the last H5N8 situation update appears in red. Human cases are depicted in the geographic location of their report. For some cases, exposure may have occurred in one geographic location but reported in another. For cases with unknown onset date, reporting date was used instead. FAO compiles information drawn from multiple national (Ministries of Agriculture or Livestock, Ministries of Health, Provincial Government websites; Centers for Disease Prevention and Control [CDC]) and international sources (World Health Organization [WHO], World Organisation for Animal Health [OIE]) as well as peer-reviewed scientific articles. FAO makes every effort to ensure, but does not guarantee, accuracy, completeness or authenticity of the information. The designation employed and the presentation of material on the map do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of FAO concerning the legal or constitutional status of any country, territory or sea area, or concerning the delimitation of frontiers.

 

Overview

  • Situation:
    • H5N8 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) 2016 virus in Africa, Asia, Europe and Middle East with pandemic potential.
  • Confirmed countriesx:
    • 1 - Austria*,
    • 2 - Belgium*,
    • 3 - Bulgaria*,
    • 4 - Croatia*,
    • 5 - Czech Republic*,
    • 6 - Denmark*,
    • 7 - Egypt*,
    • 8 - Finland,
    • 9 - France*,
    • 10 - Germany*,
    • 11 - Greece*,
    • 12 - Hungary*,
    • 13 - Kuwait*,
    • 14 - India*,
    • 15 - Iran (Islamic Republic of)*,
    • 16 - Israel*,
    • 17 - Ireland,
    • 18 - Italy*,
    • 19 - the Netherlands*,
    • 20 - Nigeria*,
    • 21 - People’s Republic of China,
    • 22 - Poland*,
    • 23 - Portugal,
    • 24 - Romania*,
    • 25 - Russian Federation*,
    • 26 - Serbia*,
    • 27 - Slovakia*,
    • 28 - Slovenia,
    • 29 - Spain,
    • 30 - Sweden*,
    • 31 - Switzerland,
    • 32 - Tunisia,
    • 33 - The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia*,
    • 34 - the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland*,
    • 35 - Uganda* and
    • 36 - Ukraine*.
  • Animal/environmental findings
    • Domestic bird species affected:
      • Chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus),
      • Duck (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus),
      • Turkey (Meleagris gallopavo),
      • Goose (Anserinae sp.),
      • Common Guineafowl (Numida meleagris).
    • Wild bird species affected:
      • Armenian Gull (Larus armenicus),
      • Been Goose (Anser fabalis),
      • Black-headed Gull (Chroicocephalus ridibundus),
      • Black Swan (Cygnus atratus),
      • Canada Goose (Branta canadensis),
      • Cattle Egret (Bubulcus ibis),
      • Black-winged Stilt (Himantopus himantopus),
      • Columbidae,
      • Common Barn-Owl (Tyto alba),
      • Common Buzzard (Buteo buteo),
      • Common Coot (Fulica atra),
      • Common Crane (Grus grus),
      • Common Goldeneye (Bucephala clangula),
      • Common Kestrel (Falco tinnunculus),
      • Common Magpie (Pica pica),
      • Common Moorhen (Gallinula chloropus),
      • Common Pheasant (Phasianus colchicus),
      • Common Pochard (Aythya ferina),
      • Common Raven (Corvus Corax),
      • Common ringed plover (Charadrius hiaticula),
      • Common Shelduck (Tadorna tadorna),
      • Common Teal (Anas crecca),
      • Common Tern (Sterna hirundo),
      • Crow (Corvus sp.),
      • Curlew (Numenius sp.),
      • Eider (Somateria mollissima),
      • Emu (Dromaius novaeollandiae),
      • Eurasian Blackbird (Turdus merula),
      • Eurasian Collared Dove (Streptopella decaocto),
      • Eurasian Curlew (Numenius arquata),
      • Eurasian Eagle-Owl (Bubo bubo),
      • Eurasian Sparrowhawk (Accipiter nisus),
      • Eurasian Spoonbill (Platalea leucorodia),
      • Eurasian Wigeon (Anas penelope),
      • Ferruginous Pochard (Aythya nyroca),
      • Glossy Ibis (Plegadis falcinellus),
      • Great Cested Grebe (Podiceps cristatus),
      • Great Cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo),
      • Great Egret (Ardea alba),
      • Greater White-fronted Goose (Anser albifrons),
      • Greylag Goose (Anser anser),
      • Gadwall (Anas strepera),
      • Great black-backed Gull (Larus marinus),
      • Greater Flamingo (Phoenicopterus roseus),
      • Greater Rhea (Rhea americana),
      • Green Sandpiper (Tringa ochropus),
      • Grey Heron (Ardea cinerea),
      • Gull (Laridae),
      • Herring Gull (Larus argentatus),
      • Hooded Crow (Corvus cornix),
      • Kentish plover (Charadrius alexandrines),
      • Indian Peafowl (Pavo cristatus),
      • Lesser Black-backed Gull (Larus fuscus),
      • Little Egret (Egretta garzetta),
      • Little ringed plover (Charadrius dubius),
      • Little stint (Calidris minuta),
      • Long Eared Owl (Asio otus),
      • Little Grebe (Tachybaptus ruficollis),
      • Mew Gull (Larus canus),
      • Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos),
      • Marbled teal (Marmaronetta angustirostris),
      • Munia (Lonchura sp.),
      • Muscovy Duck (Cairina moschata),
      • Mute Swan (Cygnus olor),
      • Northern Goshawk (Accipiter gentilis),
      • Northern Shoveler (Anas clypeata),
      • Owl (Strigiformes),
      • Painted Stork (Mycteria leucocephala),
      • Peacock (Pavo cristatus),
      • Pelican (Pelecanus sp.),
      • Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus),
      • Pheasant (Phasianidae sp.),
      • Pied avocet (Recurvirostra avosetta),
      • Pygmy Cormorant (Phalacrocorax pygmaeus),
      • Red-crested Pochard (Netta rufina),
      • Red-footed Falcon (Falco vespertinus),
      • Ruff (Philomachus pugnax),
      • Stork (Ciconiidae sp.),
      • Tufted Duck (Aythya fuligula),
      • White Stork (Ciconia ciconia),
      • White Tailed Eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla),
      • White-winged Black Tern (Chlidonias leucoptera),
      • Whooper swan (Cygnus cygnus),
      • Wild Duck (Aythyinae or Anatinae sp.),
      • Wood Sandpiper (Tringa glareola),
      • Yellow-legged Gull (Larus michahellis).
  • Number of human cases:
    • None reported to date.

 

Map 1. H5N8 HPAI outbreaks officially reported in Asia, Europe and Africa by onset date, since 1 June 2016

H5N8 HPAI outbreaks officially reported in Asia, Europe and Africa by onset date, since 1 June 2016

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FAO's support to countries

  • Global level
    • A webinar titled Intercontinental spread of H5N8 highly pathogenic avian influenza – Analysis of the current situation and recommendations for preventive action, targeting national veterinary services and FAO regional and country teams, was conducted by FAO on 24 November 2016 [link]
    • A teleconference on H5N8 HPAI and wild birds has been held by the OFFLU wildlife group on 22 November 2016
    • EMPRES Watch, September 2016: H5N8 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) of clade 2.3.4.4 detected through surveillance of wild migratory birds in the Tyva Republic, the Russian Federation – potential for international spread [link]
    • EMPRES news, 4 November 2016: H5N8 highly pathogenic avian influenza detected in Hungary and in the Republic of India H5N8 highly pathogenic avian influenza detected in Hungary and in the Republic of India [link]
    • Report of the WHO Vaccine Composition Meeting September 2016 [link]
  • Regional level
    • FAO Regional Office for Europe and Central Asia news, November 2016: Highly pathogenic avian influenza spreading in Europe, South Asia [link]
    • FAO Regional Office for Europe and Central Asia news, September 2016: Emergent Avian Influenza virus detected in surveillance of migratory birds in Russian Federation (FAO Regional Office for Europe and Central Asia news [link]
    • FAO organised an Expert Consultation on Contingency Planning for Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza in the Near-East and North Africa (NENA) region on 18-19 December 2016 in Cairo, Egypt. The consultation brought chief veterinary officers, veterinary epidemiologists and lab experts from NENA countries. FAO experts and partners (OIE and WHO) facilitated the sessions.

 

Recent publications

  1. Pohlmann A, Starick E, Harder T, Höper D, Globig A, Staubach C, et al. Outbreaks among wild birds and domestic poultry caused by reassorted influenza A(H5N8) clade 2.3.4.4 viruses, Germany, 2016. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017 Apr [ahead of print]. DOI: 10.3201/eid2304.161949.
    • A new reassortant influenza A(H5N8) virus is responsible for the recent HPAIV outbreak in Germany. The observed differences in pathogenicity for a broad spectrum of waterfowl compared with that of H5N8 viruses from 2014–2015 correlate with a new genome composition of these viruses. These new strains may be more efficiently transmitted by and shed to other wild and domestic birds, a hypothesis in line with the large number of cases among wild birds in November 2016. [Reference]
  2. Lee DH, Sharshov K, Swayne DE, Kurskaya O, Sobolev I, Kabilov M, Alekseev A, Irza V, Shestopalov A. Novel Reassortant Clade 2.3.4.4 Avian Influenza A(H5N8) Virus in Wild Aquatic Birds, Russia, 2016. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017 Feb 15;23(2). doi: 10.3201/eid2302.161252. [Reference].
  3. Globig A, Starick E, Homeier T, Pohlmann A, Grund C, Wolf P, Zimmermann A, Wolf C, Heim D, Schlößer H, Zander S, Beer M, Conraths FJ, Harder TC. Epidemiological and Molecular Analysis of an Outbreak of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza H5N8 clade 2.3.4.4 in a German Zoo: Effective Disease Control with Minimal Culling. Transbound Emerg Dis. (2016 Nov 15) [Reference].
  4. Nagarajan S, Kumar M, Murugkar HV, Tripathi S, Shukla S, Agarwal S, et al. Novel Reassortant Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (H5N8) Virus in Zoos, India. Novel reassortant highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N8) virus in zoos, India. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017 Apr. doi: 10.3201/eid2304.161886 [reference].

 

Recommendations for affected countries and those at risk

    • FAO recommends intensified surveillance and awareness raising by national authorities.
    • There is no benefit to be gained in attempting to control the virus in wild birds through culling or habitat destruction. Spraying of birds or the environment with disinfectant – for example sodium hypochlorite or bleach – is considered potentially counter-productive, harmful to the environment and not effective from a disease control perspective.
    • There is also no justification for any pre-emptive culling of endangered species in zoological collections. Control measures for captive wild birds in places where virus is detected should be based on strict movement control, isolation and only when necessary limited culling of affected birds.
  • General recommendations
    • It is important to report sick or dead birds – both wild birds and poultry - to local authorities (veterinary services, public health officials, community leaders etc.). These should be tested for avian influenza viruses.
    • Wash hands properly and often. You should always do so after handling birds or other animals, when cooking or preparing animal products, and before eating.
    • Eat only well-cooked meat products, and refrain from collecting, consuming or selling animals found sick or dead.
    • Seek immediate advice from your physician if you show signs of fever after being in contact with poultry, farmed birds, wild birds or other animals.
  • Recommendations to poultry producers
    • Farmers and poultry producers should step up their biosecurity measures in order to prevent potential virus introduction from wild birds or their faeces.
    • It is important to keep poultry and other animals away from wild birds and their sub-products or droppings through screens, fencing or nets.
    • Commercial poultry operations and backyard poultry owners should avoid the introduction of pathogens through contaminated clothes, footwear, vehicles or equipment used in waterfowl hunting.
  • Recommendations to hunters
    • Hunting associations and wildlife authorities should be aware that H5N8 and other avian influenza viruses might be present in waterfowl hunted during fall migration 2016 and that hunting, handling and dressing of shot waterfowl carries the risk of spreading avian influenza viruses to susceptible poultry.
    • Avoid introduction of avian influenza viruses to poultry through fomites (clothing, boots, vehicles, etc.) and do not feed wild bird scraps to poultry.
    • Water bird scraps should not be fed to domestic animals (cats, dogs, or poultry).
    • Any waste from hunted birds should be treated as potentially contaminated and safely disposed of.
  • Recommendations to national authorities
    • Increase surveillance efforts for the early detection of H5N8 and other influenza viruses in poultry and dead wild birds.
    • Provide means for reporting sick or dead birds, e.g. hotlines and collection points.
    • Raise awareness of the general population, poultry producers or marketers and hunters both about the disease as well as the reporting mechanisms for sick or dead birds.
    • Collaborate with hunting associations for laboratory testing of hunted birds, especially in areas that are known to be affected.
    • Provide means for and ensure proper disposal of carcases after sample collection.
    • Ensure that the means for laboratory testing are in place to detect the currently circulating avian influenza viruses, especially those of clade 2.3.4.4.
    • Gene sequencing should be performed for all H5 viruses detected, and results shared with the global community in a timely manner. This will aid understanding of how the virus is spreading.
    • Action on wild birds not recommended.

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{x} Reports of H5N8 HPAI events in Taiwan, Province of China, are not included in this update since the virus belongs to a genetically different strain.

{*} Countries in which the virus was detected in poultry.

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Keywords: FAO; Updates; H5N8; Avian Influenza; Poultry; Wild Birds; Worldwide.

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