[Source: European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC), full PDF document. (LINK). Extract.]
COMMUNICABLE DISEASE THREATS REPORT
Week 25, 16-22 June 2013
Influenza A(H7N9) - China - Monitoring human cases
Opening date: 31 March 2013 Latest update: 29 May 2013
On 31 March 2013, Chinese authorities announced the identification of a novel reassortant A(H7N9) influenza virus isolated from three unlinked fatal cases of severe respiratory disease in eastern China, two in Shanghai and one in Anhui province. The WHO Collaborating Centre for Reference and Research on Influenza at the Chinese Centre for Disease Control and Prevention (CCDC) subtyped and sequenced the viruses and found them to be of almost identical low pathogenic avian origin.
Since 31 March 2013, 132 cases of human infection with influenza A(H7N9) have been reported from eastern China and Taiwan: Zhejiang (46 cases), Shanghai (34), Jiangsu (26), Henan (4), Anhui (4), Beijing (2), Shandong (2), Fujian (5), Hunan (3), Jiangxi (5) and Taiwan (1). In addition, the virus has been detected in one asymptomatic case in Beijing. The dates of onset of disease have been between 19 February and 21 May 2013. The date of disease onset is currently unknown for fifteen patients.
Most cases have developed severe respiratory disease. Thirty seven patients have died (case-fatality ratio=28%). The median age is 61 years ranging between four and 91 years; 37 of 132 patients are female.
The Chinese health authorities responded to this public health event with enhanced surveillance, epidemiological and laboratory investigation and contact tracing. The animal health sector has intensified investigations into the possible sources and reservoirs of the virus. The authorities reported to the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) that avian influenza A(H7N9) was detected in samples from pigeons, chickens and ducks, and in environmental samples from live bird markets ('wet markets') in Shanghai, Jiangsu, Anhui and Zhejiang provinces. Authorities have closed markets and culled poultry in affected areas.
Influenza A(H7N9) is a zoonotic disease that has spread or is spreading in poultry in parts of eastern China causing a severe disease in humans. At this time there is no evidence of sustained person-to-person transmission. Close to 3 000 contacts have been followed-up and only a few are reported to have developed symptoms, as part of three small family clusters.
At present, the most immediate threat to EU citizens is to those in China who are strongly advised to avoid live bird markets. The risk of the disease spreading to Europe via humans in the near future is considered low. However, it is likely that people presenting with severe respiratory infection in the EU and a history of potential exposure in the outbreak area will require investigation in Europe.
There is no specific guidance on blood or tissue donor deferral for exposure to avian influenza. The incubation period for A(H7N9) is assumed to be 10 days or less, and there is no reason to believe that infected people will be viraemic beyond the acute disease episode. Therefore, the risk of transmission through blood transfusion can be considered very low in the context of the current donor selection procedures.
The gradual geographical extension seems to have stopped and there has been a decline in the number of cases since the beginning of May, possibly due to the closure of urban live bird markets in China. The fact that human infections with bird flu viruses tend to drop off during spring and summer in affected countries could also play a role. Many unanswered questions remain, however, regarding this outbreak, e.g. the reservoir, the route of transmission, the spectrum of disease and the reason for the unusual age–gender imbalance.
ECDC is closely monitoring developments and is continuously re-assessing the situation in collaboration with WHO, the US CDC, the Chinese CDC and other partners.
ECDC published an updated Rapid Risk Assessment on 8 May 2013.
A case detection algorithm and an EU case definition has been developed and shared with EU Member states.
ECDC guidance for Supporting diagnostic preparedness for detection of avian influenza A(H7N9) viruses in Europe for laboratories was published on 24 April 2013.