30 Jan 2015

#Situation de la #lutte contre la #maladie à virus #Ebola au #Mali à la date du jeudi 29 janvier 2015 (Mali Actu, Jan. 30 2015) [2 new suspected cases]

[Source: Mali Actu, full page: (LINK).]

Mali : Situation de la lutte contre la maladie à virus Ebola au Mali à la date du jeudi 29 janvier 2015 [      ]

29 January 2015

A la date du jeudi 29 janvier 2015, la situation de la lutte contre la maladie à virus Ebola au Mali se présente comme suit :

  • Zéro (0) nouveau cas confirmé ;
  • Deux (2) cas suspects en cours d’analyse ce jour jeudi 29 janvier 2015.
  • Sur sept (7) cas confirmés au Mali, cinq (5) ont entrainé des décès, et deux ont été guéris.

Bien que déclaré sorti de l’épidémie de la maladie à virus Ebola depuis le 18 janvier 2015, le Mali fait face à une menace réelle, tant que cette épidémie n’aura pas été vaincue dans les pays de la sous- région où elle a été déclarée.

C’est pourquoi, tout en remerciant l’ensemble des partenaires techniques et financiers et les acteurs engagés sur le front de la lutte contre l’épidémie de la maladie à virus Ebola, le Gouvernement appelle l’ensemble des populations à une mobilisation accrue pour éviter toute réapparition de la maladie à virus Ebola sur tout le territoire national.

Il est toujours conseillé de se laver les mains au savon avec de l’eau propre, et d’éviter les accolades et de se serrer les mains autant que faire se peut.

Le Gouvernement invite la population à continuer d’utiliser les numéros verts pour déclarer tout cas suspect, ou demander des informations : 80 00 89 89 / 80 00 88 88 / 80 00 77 77.

Le Professeur Samba Sow

-

-------

#Canada, [2nd] #H7N9 #birdflu case confirmed in British Columbia #patient (CBC, January 30 2015)

[Source: CBC News, full page: (LINK).]

H7N9 bird flu case confirmed in second B.C. patient [      ]

By Helen Branswell, The Canadian Press Posted: Jan 29, 2015 9:24 PM PT Last Updated: Jan 29, 2015 9:28 PM PT

British Columbia man has been confirmed as Canada’s second case of H7N9 bird flu. The unidentified man and his wife are believed to have contracted the virus during a recent trip to China. (Associated Press)

---> 1st North American case of H7N9 bird flu confirmed in B.C. woman

The unidentified man and his wife are believed to have contracted the virus during a recent trip to China.

(…)

-

------

29 Jan 2015

#Update on the #Epidemiology of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome #Coronavirus (#MERS-CoV) #Infection, and #Guidance for the Public, Clinicians, and Public Health Authorities — January 2015 (@CDCgov, MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep., edited)

[Source: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), MMWR Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, full page: (LINK). Edited.]

Update on the Epidemiology of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) Infection, and Guidance for the Public, Clinicians, and Public Health Authorities — January 2015 [      ]

Weekly / January 30, 2015 / 64(03);61-62

Brian Rha, MD1, Jessica Rudd, MPH1, Daniel Feikin, MD1, John Watson, MD1, Aaron T. Curns, MPH1, David L. Swerdlow, MD2, Mark A. Pallansch, PhD1, Susan I. Gerber, MD1 (Author affiliations at end of text)

______

CDC continues to work with the World Health Organization (WHO) and other partners to closely monitor Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infections globally and to better understand the risks to public health. The purpose of this report is to provide a brief update on MERS-CoV epidemiology and to notify health care providers, public health officials, and others to maintain awareness of the need to consider MERS-CoV infection in persons who have recently traveled from countries in or near the Arabian Peninsula.*

MERS-CoV was first identified and reported to WHO in September 2012 (1). As of January 23, 2015, WHO has confirmed 956 laboratory-confirmed† cases of MERS-CoV infection, which include at least 351 deaths. All reported cases have been directly or indirectly linked through travel or residence to nine countries: Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, Qatar, Jordan, Oman, Kuwait, Yemen, Lebanon, and Iran. In the United States, two patients tested positive for MERS-CoV in May 2014, each of whom had a history of fever and one or more respiratory symptoms after recent travel from Saudi Arabia (2). No further cases have been reported in the United States despite nationwide surveillance and the testing of 514 patients from 45 states to date.

The majority (504) of the 956 MERS cases were reported to have occurred during March–May 2014 (Figure). However, WHO continues to receive reports of MERS cases, mostly from Saudi Arabia.§ From August 1, 2014, through January 23, 2015, WHO confirmed 102 cases, 97 of which occurred in persons with residence in Saudi Arabia, including three travel-associated cases reported by Austria, Turkey, and Jordan; of the remaining cases, two cases were in persons from Qatar, and three cases were in persons from Oman.

CDC continues to recommend that U.S. travelers to countries in or near the Arabian Peninsula protect themselves from respiratory diseases, including MERS, by washing their hands often and avoiding contact with persons who are ill. If travelers to the region have onset of fever and symptoms of respiratory illness during their trip or within 14 days of returning to the United States, they should seek medical care. They should call ahead to inform their health care provider of their recent travel so that appropriate isolation measures can be taken in health care settings. Health care providers and health departments throughout the United States should continue to consider a diagnosis of MERS-CoV infection in persons who develop fever and respiratory symptoms within 14 days after traveling from countries in or near the Arabian Peninsula, and be prepared to detect and manage cases of MERS.

Recommendations might change and be updated as additional data become available. More detailed travel recommendations related to MERS, including general precautions posted by WHO for anyone visiting farms, markets, barns, or other places where animals are present, are available at http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/travel/notices/alert/coronavirus-arabian-peninsula. The website also lists more specific WHO recommendations for persons with diabetes, kidney failure, or chronic lung disease, and immunocompromised persons, that include avoiding contact with camels.¶

Guidance on the evaluation of patients for MERS-CoV infection, infection control, home care and isolation, and clinical specimen collection and testing is available on the CDC MERS website at http://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/mers/index.html. Treatment is supportive; no specific treatment for MERS-CoV infection is available. WHO has posted guidance for clinical management of MERS patients at http://www.who.int/csr/disease/coronavirus_infections/InterimGuidance_ClinicalManagement_NovelCoronavirus_11Feb13u.pdf?ua=1 

______

1Division of Viral Diseases, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, CDC; 2Office of the Director, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, CDC (Corresponding author: Brian Rha, wif8@cdc.gov, 404-639-3972)

 

References

  1. Zaki AM, van Boheemen S, Bestebroer TM, Osterhaus AD, Fouchier RA. Isolation of a novel coronavirus from a man with pneumonia in Saudi Arabia. N Engl J Med 2012;367:1814–20.
  2. Bialek SR, Allen D, Alvarado-Ramy F, et al. First confirmed cases of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection in the United States, updated information on the epidemiology of MERS-CoV infection, and guidance for the public, clinicians, and public health authorities—May 2014. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2014;63:431–6.

______

* Countries considered in the Arabian Peninsula and neighboring include: Bahrain; Iraq; Iran; Israel, the West Bank and Gaza; Jordan; Kuwait; Lebanon; Oman; Qatar; Saudi Arabia; Syria; the United Arab Emirates; and Yemen.

† Confirmatory laboratory testing requires a positive polymerase chain reaction test result on at least two specific genomic targets for MERS-CoV or a single positive target with sequencing on a second.

§ Additional information available at http://www.who.int/csr/don/archive/disease/coronavirus_infections/en 

¶ Additional information available at http://www.who.int/csr/disease/coronavirus_infections/MERS_CoV_RA_20140613.pdf?ua=1 

(…)

-

------

#Outbreaks of Unexplained #Neurologic #Illness — Muzaffarpur, #India, 2013–2014 (@CDCgov, MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep., abstract, edited)

[Source: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), MMWR Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Outbreaks of Unexplained Neurologic Illness — Muzaffarpur, India, 2013–2014 [      ]

Weekly / January 30, 2015 / 64(03);49-53

Aakash Shrivastava, MD1, Padmini Srikantiah, MD2,3, Anil Kumar, MD1, Gyan Bhushan, MD4, Kapil Goel, MD5, Satish Kumar, MD5, Tripurari Kumar, MBBS5, Raju Mohankumar, MBBS5, Rajesh Pandey, MBBS5, Parvez Pathan, MBBS5, Yogita Tulsian, MBBS5, Mohan Pappanna, MD6, Achhelal Pasi, MD6, Arghya Pradhan, MBBS6, Pankaj Singh, MBBS6, D. Somashekar, MD6, Anoop Velayudhan, MBBS6, Rajesh Yadav, MBBS6, Mala Chhabra, MD1, Veena Mittal, MD1, Shashi Khare, MD1, James J Sejvar, MD7, Mayank Dwivedi, MD2, Kayla Laserson, ScD2,3, Kenneth C. Earhart, MD2,3, P. Sivaperumal, PhD8, A. Ramesh Kumar, PhD8, Amit Chakrabarti, MD8, Jerry Thomas, MD9, Joshua Schier, MD9, Ram Singh, PhD1, Ravi Shankar Singh, MD1, A.C. Dhariwal, MD10, L.S. Chauhan, MD1 (Author affiliations at end of text)

______

Outbreaks of an unexplained acute neurologic illness affecting young children and associated with high case-fatality rates have been reported in the Muzaffarpur district of Bihar state in India since 1995. The outbreaks generally peak in June and decline weeks later with the onset of monsoon rains. There have been multiple epidemiologic and laboratory investigations of this syndrome, leading to a wide spectrum of proposed causes for the illness, including infectious encephalitis and exposure to pesticides. An association between illness and litchi fruit has been postulated because Muzaffarpur is a litchi fruit–producing region (Figure 1). To better characterize clinical and epidemiologic features of the illness that might suggest its cause and how it can be prevented, the Indian National Centre for Disease Control (NCDC) and CDC investigated outbreaks in 2013 and 2014. Clinical and laboratory findings in 2013 suggested a noninflammatory encephalopathy, possibly caused by a toxin. A common laboratory finding was low blood glucose (<70 mg/dL) on admission, a finding associated with a poorer outcome; 44% of all cases were fatal. An ongoing 2014 investigation has found no evidence of any infectious etiology and supports the possibility that exposure to a toxin might be the cause. The outbreak period coincides with the month-long litchi harvesting season in Muzaffarpur. Although a specific etiology has not yet been determined, the 2014 investigation has identified the illness as a hypoglycemic encephalopathy and confirmed the importance of ongoing laboratory evaluation of environmental toxins to identify a potential causative agent, including markers for methylenecyclopropylglycine (MCPG), a compound found in litchi seeds known to cause hypoglycemia in animal studies (1–3). Current public health recommendations are focused on reducing mortality by urging affected families to seek prompt medical care, and ensuring rapid assessment and correction of hypoglycemia in ill children.

(…)

-

-------

Interim #estimates of 2014/15 #vaccine #effectiveness against #influenza A(#H3N2) from #Canada’s Sentinel Physician Surveillance Network, January 2015 (@Eurosurveillanc, abstract, edited)

[Source: Eurosurveillance, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Eurosurveillance, Volume 20, Issue 4, 29 January 2015  / Research articles

Interim estimates of 2014/15 vaccine effectiveness against influenza A(H3N2) from Canada’s Sentinel Physician Surveillance Network, January  2015 [      ]

D M Skowronski 1,2, C Chambers1, S Sabaiduc1, G De Serres3,4,5, J A Dickinson6, A L Winter7, S J Drews8,9, K Fonseca6,10, H Charest3, J B Gubbay7,11, M Petric2, M Krajden1,2, T L Kwindt1,2, C Martineau3, A Eshaghi7, N Bastien12, Y Li12,13

1British Columbia Centre for Disease Control, Vancouver, Canada  - 2 University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada  - 3 Institut National de Santé Publique du Québec (National Institute of Health of Quebec), Québec, Canada – 4 Laval University, Quebec, Canada  - 5 Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Québec (University Hospital Centre of Quebec), Québec, Canada – 6 University of Calgary, Calgary, Canada  - 7 Public Health Ontario, Toronto, Canada  - 8 University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada  - 9 Alberta Provincial Laboratory, Edmonton, Canada  - 10 Alberta Provincial Laboratory, Calgary, Canada  - 11 University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada  - 12 National Microbiology Laboratory, Public Health Agency of Canada, Winnipeg, Canada  - 13 University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada

Citation style for this article: Skowronski DM, Chambers C, Sabaiduc S, De Serres G, Dickinson JA, Winter AL, Drews SJ, Fonseca K, Charest H, Gubbay JB, Petric M, Krajden M, Kwindt TL, Martineau C, Eshaghi A, Bastien N, Li Y. Interim estimates of 2014/15 vaccine effectiveness against influenza A(H3N2) from Canada’s Sentinel Physician Surveillance Network, January 2015. Euro Surveill. 2015;20(4):pii=21022. Available online: http://www.eurosurveillance.org/ViewArticle.aspx?ArticleId=21022

Date of submission: 21 January 2015

 

Abstract

The 2014/15 influenza season to date in Canada has been characterised by predominant influenza A(H3N2) activity. Canada’s Sentinel Physician Surveillance Network (SPSN) assessed interim vaccine effectiveness (VE) against medically attended, laboratory-confirmed influenza A(H3N2) infection in January 2015 using a test-negative case–control design. Of 861 participants, 410 (48%) were test-positive cases (35% vaccinated) and 451 (52%) were test-negative controls (33% vaccinated). Among test-positive cases, the majority (391; 95%) were diagnosed with influenza A, and of those with available subtype information, almost all influenza A viruses (379/381; 99%) were A(H3N2). Among 226 (60%) A(H3N2) viruses that were sequenced, 205 (91%) clustered with phylogenetic clade 3C.2a, considered genetically and antigenically distinct from the 2014/15 A/Texas/50/2012(H3N2)-like clade 3C.1 vaccine reference strain, and typically bearing 10 to 11 amino acid differences from the vaccine at key antigenic sites of the haemagglutinin protein. Consistent with substantial vaccine mismatch, little or no vaccine protection was observed overall, with adjusted VE against medically attended influenza A(H3N2) infection of −8% (95% CI: −50 to 23%). Given these findings, other adjunct protective measures should be considered to minimise morbidity and mortality, particularly among high-risk individuals. Virus and/or host factors influencing this reduced vaccine protection warrant further in-depth investigation.

 

-

------

Start of the 2014/15 #influenza #season in #Europe: drifted influenza A(#H3N2) viruses circulate as dominant subtype (@Eurosurveillanc, abstract, edited)

[Source: Eurosurveillance, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Eurosurveillance, Volume 20, Issue 4, 29 January 2015  / Rapid communications

Start of the 2014/15 influenza season in Europe: drifted influenza A(H3N2) viruses circulate as dominant subtype [      ]

E Broberg 1, R Snacken1, C Adlhoch1, J Beauté1, M Galinska2, D Pereyaslov2, C Brown2, P Penttinen1, on behalf of the WHO European Region and the European Influenza Surveillance Network3

1European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC), Stockholm, Sweden  - 2 World Health Organization (WHO) Regional Office for Europe, Copenhagen, Denmark  - 3 The members of the network are listed at the end of the article

Citation style for this article: Broberg E, Snacken R, Adlhoch C, Beauté J, Galinska M, Pereyaslov D, Brown C, Penttinen P, on behalf of the WHO European Region and the European Influenza Surveillance Network. Start of the 2014/15 influenza season in Europe: drifted influenza A(H3N2) viruses circulate as dominant subtype. Euro Surveill. 2015;20(4):pii=21023. Available online: http://www.eurosurveillance.org/ViewArticle.aspx?ArticleId=21023

Date of submission: 22 January 2015

 

Abstract

The influenza season 2014/15 started in Europe in week 50 2014 with influenza A(H3N2) viruses predominating. The majority of the A(H3N2) viruses characterised antigenically and/or genetically differ from the northern hemisphere vaccine component which may result in reduced vaccine effectiveness for the season. We therefore anticipate that this season may be more severe than the 2013/14 season. Treating influenza with antivirals in addition to prevention with vaccination will be important.

-

-------

#Bovine spongiform #encephalopathy [#BSE], #Norway (#OIE, January 29 2015, edited)

[Source: OIE, full page: (LINK). Edited.]

Bovine spongiform encephalopathy [#BSE], Norway [      ]

Information received on 29/01/2015 from Dre Kristina Landsverk, Chief Veterinary Officer, Norwegian Food Safety Authority, Ministry of Agriculture and Food, Brumunddal, Norway

  • Summary
    • Report type Immediate notification
    • Date of start of the event 16/01/2015
    • Date of pre-confirmation of the event 20/01/2015
    • Report date 29/01/2015
    • Date submitted to OIE 29/01/2015
    • Reason for notification First occurrence of a listed disease
    • Manifestation of disease Sub-clinical infection
    • Causal agent Prion (atypical BSE type H)
    • Nature of diagnosis Laboratory (advanced)
    • This event pertains to the whole country
  • New outbreaks
    • Summary of outbreaks
      • Total outbreaks: 1
        • Outbreak Location  - NORD-TRONDELAG ( Verran, Tua, District office Innherred og Fosen, Region office Trøndelag og Møre og Romdal )
          • Total animals affected: Species – Susceptible – Cases – Deaths – Destroyed – Slaughtered
            • Cattle  - 27  - 1  - 0  - 1  - 0
          • Outbreak statistics: Species - Apparent morbidity rate - Apparent mortality rate - Apparent case fatality rate - Proportion susceptible animals lost*
            • Cattle - 3.70% - 0.00% - 0.00% - 3.70%
            • * Removed from the susceptible population through death, destruction and/or slaughter;
  • Epidemiology
    • Source of the outbreak(s) or origin of infection
      • Unknown or inconclusive
  • Epidemiological comments
    • Based on status on 29 January 2015:
      • On 20 January 2015, the Norwegian Veterinary Institute reported suspicion of BSE on a cow in Norway, based on initial test done on CNS material.
      • Part of this material was sent to European Union Reference Laboratory in Weybridge (21 January 2015) for verification of diagnosis.
      • The affected cow was a 15-year-old and born in Norway.
      • The dam was imported from Sweden.
      • The cow did not show clinical signs of neurological disease before she was killed (12 January 2015) due to old age and injuries.
      • The BSE test was taken as part of the BSE surveillance program.
      • The Norwegian Food Safety Authority (NFSA) has put restrictions on movement on the farm, and performed epidemiological investigations.
      • The NFSA has identified four risk animals, according to relevant legislation.
      • These animals are also placed under official movement restrictions.
      • The four identified risk animals will be killed and disposed by incineration according to European Union legislation.
      • The epidemiological investigation including tracing of risk animals from the holding of origin as well as the present holding has identified 2 offspring borne within two years prior to the incident in addition to 2 cattle belonging either to (1) the cohort of animals born in the same herd as the affected animal within 12 months preceding or following the date of birth of the affected cow or (2) the cohort of animals which at any time during the first year of their lives were reared together with the affected cow during her first year of life.
      • Progeny borne within two years prior to the incident and the cohort of risk animals are put under movement restrictions and the killing and destruction of these animals will be carried into effect as soon as possible.
      • The affected cow’s carcass has been completely destroyed.
      • The NFSA ensures that the cow’s carcass has been processed by pressure sterilisation in a Category 1 processing plant and that the resulting material has been sent for incineration/co-incineration in accordance with the By-Products Regulation.
  • Control measures
    • Measures applied
      • Movement control inside the country
      • Screening
      • No vaccination
      • No treatment of affected animals
    • Measures to be applied
      • Modified stamping out
  • Diagnostic test results
    • Laboratory name and type - Norwegian Veterinary Institute ( National laboratory )
      • Tests and results: Species – Test - Test date – Result
        • Cattle - enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) - 20/01/2015 – Positive
        • Cattle - western blot - 20/01/2015 – Positive
    • Laboratory name and type - EU Reference Laboratory, Animal and Plant Health Agency (APHA), Weybridge (United Kingdom) ( OIE’s Reference Laboratory )
      • Tests and results: Species – Test - Test date – Result
        • Cattle -immunohistochemical test  - 28/01/2015 – Positive
        • Cattle - western blot - 28/01/2015 – Positive
  • Future Reporting
    • The event is continuing. Weekly follow-up reports will be submitted.

-

-------

#Saudi Arabia reported no new #MERS-CoV cases in the last 24 hours (@SaudiMOH, January 29 2015, edited)

[Source: Saudi Arabia Ministry of Health, full page: (LINK). Edited.]

#Saudi Arabia reported no new #MERS-CoV cases in the last 24 hours [      ]

1/29/2015

_______

New Cases:

  • No reports

Earlier reported cases discharged from hospital:

  • No reports

Deaths among previously announced cases:

  • No reports

______

_______

-

-------

Highly pathogenic #avian #influenza #H5N6, #China (People's Rep. of) [a #poultry #outbreak in #Jiangsu] (#OIE World Animal Health Information System, January 29 2015, edited)

[Source: OIE, full page: (LINK). Edited.]

Highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N6, China (People's Rep. of) [      ]

Information received on 29/01/2015 from Dr Zhang Zhongqui, Director General , China Animal Disease Control Centre, Veterinary Bureau, Ministry of Agriculture, Beijing, China (People's Rep. of)

  • Summary
  • New outbreaks (1)
    • Outbreak 1  - Farm, Changzhou , Suzhou City, JIANGSU
      • Date of start of the outbreak 25/01/2015
      • Outbreak status Continuing (or date resolved not provided)
      • Epidemiological unit Farm
      • Affected animals: Species – Susceptible – Cases – Deaths – Destroyed – Slaughtered
        • Birds  - 19284 – 1185 – 582 – 18702 – 0
        • Affected population Geese
    • Summary of outbreaks
      • Total outbreaks: 1
        • Total animals affected: Species – Susceptible – Cases – Deaths – Destroyed – Slaughtered
          • Birds – 19284 – 1185 – 582 – 18702 – 0
        • Outbreak statistics: Species - Apparent morbidity rate - Apparent mortality rate - Apparent case fatality rate - Proportion susceptible animals lost*
          • Birds - 6.14% - 3.02% - 49.11% - 100.00%
          • *Removed from the susceptible population through death, destruction and/or slaughter
  • Epidemiology
    • Source of the outbreak(s) or origin of infection
      • Unknown or inconclusive
  • Control measures
    • Measures applied
      • Stamping out
      • Quarantine
      • Movement control inside the country
      • Screening
      • Zoning
      • Disinfection of infected premises/establishment(s)
      • No vaccination
      • No treatment of affected animals
    • Measures to be applied
      • No other measures
  • Diagnostic test results
    • Laboratory name and type – Species – Test - Test date – Result
      • Harbin veterinary research institute, Chinese academy of agricultural sciences (OIE’s Reference Laboratory) – Birds - reverse transcription - polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) - 28/01/2015 – Positive
      • Harbin veterinary research institute, Chinese academy of agricultural sciences (OIE’s Reference Laboratory) – Birds - virus isolation - 28/01/2015 – Positive
  • Future Reporting
    • The event is continuing. Weekly follow-up reports will be submitted.

-

------

Highly pathogenic #avian #influenza #H5N2, #China (People's Rep. of) [1 new #poultry #outbreak, #Jiangsu] (#OIE World Animal Health Information System, January 29 2015, edited)

[Source: OIE, full page: (LINK). Edited.]

Highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N2, China (People's Rep. of) [      ]

Information received on 29/01/2015 from Dr Zhang Zhongqui, Director General , China Animal Disease Control Centre, Veterinary Bureau, Ministry of Agriculture, Beijing, China (People's Rep. of)

  • Summary
  • New outbreaks (1)
    • Outbreak 1  - Farm, Taixing, Taizhou, JIANGSU
      • Date of start of the outbreak 28/01/2015
      • Outbreak status Continuing (or date resolved not provided)
      • Epidemiological unit Farm
      • Affected animals: Species – Susceptible – Cases – Deaths – Destroyed – Slaughtered
        • Birds  - 40896 – 1616 – 1616 – 39280 – 0
    • Summary of outbreaks
      • Total outbreaks: 1
        • Total animals affected: Species – Susceptible – Cases – Deaths – Destroyed – Slaughtered
          • Birds – 40896 – 1616 – 1616 – 39280 – 0
        • Outbreak statistics: Species - Apparent morbidity rate - Apparent mortality rate - Apparent case fatality rate - Proportion susceptible animals lost*
          • Birds - 3.95% - 3.95% - 100.00% - 100.00%
          • *Removed from the susceptible population through death, destruction and/or slaughter
  • Epidemiology
    • Source of the outbreak(s) or origin of infection
      • Unknown or inconclusive
  • Control measures
    • Measures applied
      • Stamping out
      • Movement control inside the country
      • Screening
      • Zoning
      • Disinfection of infected premises/establishment(s)
      • No vaccination
      • No treatment of affected animals
    • Measures to be applied
      • No other measures
  • Diagnostic test results
    • Laboratory name and type – Species – Test - Test date – Result
      • Harbin veterinary research institute, Chinese academy of agricultural sciences (OIE’s Reference Laboratory) – Birds – reverse transcription - polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) - 28/01/2015 – Positive
      • Harbin veterinary research institute, Chinese academy of agricultural sciences (OIE’s Reference Laboratory) – Birds - virus isolation - 28/01/2015 – Positive
  • Future Reporting
    • The event is continuing. Weekly follow-up reports will be submitted.

-

------