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#WHO #publichealth #advice regarding the #Olympics and #Zika virus (@WHO, May 28 2016)

  Title : #WHO #publichealth #advice regarding the #Olympics and #Zika virus. Subject : Zika Virus Epidemic in Brazil, Mass Gathering Even...

30 May 2016

#SouthSudan, a #visit to #Bentiu #UN #refugees #camp as #food #crisis in the country worsen (NPR, May 30 2016)

 

Title: #SouthSudan, a visit to Bentiu UN refugees camp as food crisis in the country worsen.

Subject: Sout Sudan, mass displacement of people after decades of civil wars.

Source: NPR, full page: (LINK). Via Instagram.

Code: [  SOC  ]

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A plane flies over the U.N. Protection of Civilians Site near Bentiu, South Sudan, home to more than 120,000 people who have sought refuge from the civil war. The ditches in the middle of the camp were dug to prevent massive flooding, which occurred in 2014. The site is the largest of six U.N.-run displaced persons camps in the country. When South Sudan gained independence in 2011, there was great optimism both inside and outside of the country that it was putting its deeply troubled past behind it. For generations, the South Sudanese had been terrorized by rebel armies and repressive government soldiers. At independence, South Sudan was one of the poorest nations in sub-Saharan Africa but also one of its most oil-rich. Aid groups and the U.N. warn that the country is now on the brink of a catastrophic food crisis. Follow our profile link for the full story. (Credit: David Gilkey/NPR) #southsudan #msf

Una foto pubblicata da NPR (@npr) in data:

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Keywords: Society; Wars; Poverty; Migrants; South Sudan.

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Rapid #Risk #Assessment: #Outbreak of #yellowfever in #Angola, #DRC and #Uganda, first #update – 27 May 2016 (@ECDC, summary)

 

Title: Rapid #Risk #Assessment: #Outbreak of #yellowfever in #Angola, #DRC and #Uganda, first #update – 27 May 2016.

Subject: Yellow Fever, Multi-country outbreak.

Source: European Centre for Disease Control and Prevention (ECDC), full PDF file: (LINK).

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RAPID RISK ASSESSMENT

Outbreak of yellow fever in Angola, DRC and Uganda, first update – 27 May 2016

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Suggested citation: European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. Rapid Risk Assessment. Outbreak of yellow fever in Angola, Democratic Republic of Congo and Uganda: First update, 27 May 2016. Stockholm: ECDC; 2016. 

© European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control, Stockholm, 2016

 

Main conclusions and options for response

  • In the EU/EEA, the risk of yellow fever virus being introduced is limited to unvaccinated viraemic travellers coming from epidemic areas.
  • Given that outbreaks of yellow fever in urban settings have the potential for rapid spread and that significant yellow fever epidemics are ongoing in Angola, DRC and Uganda, EU/EEA Member States should consider a range of options for response.

Information for travellers to and EU citizens residing in areas with active transmission

  • Travellers visiting countries where there is evidence of persistent or periodic yellow fever virus transmission and EU citizens residing in these countries should:
    • Be made aware of the risk of yellow fever;
    • Check their vaccination status and get vaccinated. Vaccination against yellow fever is recommended for all those ≥9 months old travelling to areas where there is evidence of persistent or periodic yellow fever virus transmission. WHO publishes a list of countries, territories and areas with yellow fever vaccination requirements and recommendations [1] which includes Angola, Democratic Republic of Congo and Uganda. In Angola, the country requirement specifies that a yellow fever vaccination certificate is required for travellers aged over nine months. To reduce the risk of serious adverse events, healthcare practitioners should be aware of the contraindications and follow the manufacturers’ advice on precautions to take before administering yellow fever vaccine [2]. 
    • Take measures to prevent mosquito bites indoors and outdoors, especially between sunrise and sunset when Aedes mosquito vectors are most active and biting. These measures include:
      • The use of mosquito repellent in accordance with the instructions indicated on the product label. 
      • Wearing long-sleeved shirts and long trousers, especially during the hours when the type of mosquito known to transmit the yellow fever virus ( Aedes ) is most active.
      • Sleeping or resting in screened or air-conditioned rooms or using mosquito nets, at night and during the day. 

Options to prevent importation into EU/EEA countries 

  • Implement the WHO International Health Regulations (IHR) Emergency Committee recommendation to only allow travellers showing proof of a valid vaccination record for yellow fever to leave Angola.
  • The procedure should also be applied to land and sea borders.
  • Entry screening in the EU, for proof of vaccination, would be of limited value because of the limited availability of direct flights and the high likelihood of indirect travel routes into the EU.
  • Alternatively, EU Member States, particularly those including areas with established populations of suitable Aedes mosquitoes, could prevent the arrival of viraemic travellers by requesting proof of valid vaccination when issuing a visa.

Options to prevent transmission in EU/EEA countries

  • Raise awareness of public health stakeholders, in particular clinicians and travel health clinics, concerning the risk of yellow fever virus introduction into the EU through unvaccinated viraemic travellers coming from epidemic areas. 
  • Clinicians should consider yellow fever among differential diagnoses for travellers returning from affected areas. 
  • Ensure that clinicians and travel health clinics get updated information about areas with an ongoing yellow fever outbreak to support their diagnosis in travellers returning from those areas. 
  • Apply strict personal prevention measures against Aedes mosquito bites for any suspected and confirmed yellow fever cases through the use of a mosquito net in receptive areas for yellow fever transmission (i.e. areas with active competent vectors and human populations susceptible to yellow fever infection).
  • Implement focal vector control in the areas where unvaccinated viraemic travellers have stayed. This option helps to reduce the risk of onward autochthonous transmission to the EU/EEA mainland and EU Overseas Countries and Territories (OCT) and Outermost Regions (OMR), in areas where yellow fever vectors are present. The vector competence of European Aedes albopictus mosquito populations needs to be assessed.

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Keywords: ECDC; European Region; Updates; Yellow Fever.

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#Prevention of #sexual #transmission of #Zika virus–Interim #guidance #update, 30 May 2016 (@WHO, edited)

 

Title: #Prevention of #sexual #transmission of #Zika virus–Interim #guidance #update, 30 May 2016.

Subject: Zika Virus Disease, Zika Congenital Infection & Related Neurological and Fetal Neurodevelopmental complication; prevention of sexual transmission guidance.

Source: World health Organization (WHO), full PDF file: (LINK).

Code: [      ]

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Prevention of sexual transmission of Zika virus - Interim guidance update, 30 May 2016

WHO/ZIKV/MOC/16.1 Rev.1      

© World Health Organization 2016 All rights reserved.

Publications of the World Health Organization are available on the WHO website (www.who.int) or can be purchased from WHO Press, World Health Organization, 20 Avenue Appia, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland (tel.: +41 22 791 3264; fax: +41 22 791 4857; e-mail: bookorders@who.int). 

Requests for permission to reproduce or translate WHO publications –whether for sale or for non-commercial distribution– should be addressed to WHO Press through the WHO website (www.who.int/about/licensing/copyright_form/en/index.html).

The designations employed and the presentation of the material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the World Health Organization concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. Dotted and dashed lines on maps represent approximate border lines for which there may not yet be full agreement.

The mention of specific companies or of certain manufacturers’ products does not imply that they are endorsed or recommended by the World Health Organization in preference to others of a similar nature that are not mentioned.

Errors and omissions excepted, the names of proprietary products are distinguished by initial capital letters. All reasonable precautions have been taken by the World Health Organization to verify the information contained in this publication. However, the published material is being distributed without warranty of any kind, either expressed or implied. The responsibility for the interpretation and use of the material lies with the reader. In no event shall the World Health Organization be liable for damages arising from its use.  

 

  • Introduction  
    • 1.1 Background
      • This document is an update of guidance published on 18 February 2016 to provide advice on the prevention of sexual transmission of Zika virus. 
      • The primary transmission route of Zika virus is via the Aedes mosquito. However, mounting evidence has shown that sexual transmission of Zika virus is possible and more common than previously assumed.[1] This is of concern due to an association between Zika virus infection and adverse pregnancy and fetal outcomes, including microcephaly, neurological complications and Guillain-Barré syndrome. 
      • The current evidence base on Zika virus remains limited. This guidance will be reviewed and the recommendations updated as new evidence emerges. 
    • 1.2 Target audience 
      • This document is intended to inform the general public, and to be used by health care workers and policy makers to provide guidance on appropriate sexual practices in the context of Zika virus.
  • Sexual transmission of Zika virus  
    • 2.1 Current evidence 
      • 2.1.1 Summary of publications
        • As of 19 May 2016, 12 studies or reports have been published on sexual transmission of Zika virus, including:
          • Four studies on male to female transmission.[2-5]
          • One study on male to male transmission.[6]
          • Four case-reports reported by International Health Regulations National Focal Points.[7-10]
          • Three case-reports described through government/news media.[11-13]
          • In addition, three studies have been published on the presence of Zika virus in semen.[14-16]
      • 2.1.2 Modes of sexual transmission
        • Zika virus transmission by sexual intercourse was first suggested by Foy et al.[2]
        • Published in 2011, this study described the case of a male patient infected with Zika virus in south-eastern Senegal in 2008 who infected his wife via sexual intercourse upon return to the United States of America.
        • Since then and up to 19 May 2016, sexual transmission of Zika virus has been reported in ten countries (United States of America 3, France 4, Italy 5, Argentina 7, Chile 8, Peru 9, Portugal 10, New Zealand 11, Canada 12 and Germany 13) and referred mainly to vaginal intercourse.
        • On 2 February 2016 the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention announced the first documented case of a man infected with Zika virus through anal sex.[6]
        • Soon after, a case report published in April 2016 raised the suspicion of Zika virus transmission through oral sex.
        • The case, identified in February 2016, had sexual contact with a partner with symptoms of Zika virus infection.
        • Transmission via oral sex was suspected as the sexual activity involved vaginal intercourse, with no condom and no ejaculation, and oral sex with ejaculation.[4]
        • To date, all published cases of sexual transmission have been from symptomatic male, whose sexual activities may have occurred before, during or after Zika symptom onset, to their partner.
        • It remains unknown if women or asymptomatic men can transmit the virus through sexual activity.
      • 2.1.3 Presence of the virus in semen
        • Zika virus was first isolated in semen in a man in Tahiti who sought treatment for hematospermia during a Zika virus outbreak in French Polynesia in December 2013.[14]
        • The virus was cultured in semen at least 14 days after symptom onset.
        • In 2016 two studies reported the presence of Zika virus in semen, detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).
        • One of the report[15] documented that the virus was cultured from the semen specimen 14 days after diagnosis (thus more than 2 weeks after illness onset); and the viral load detected was 100 000 times that of his blood.
        • In the second report and most recent study, published in May 201616, researchers reported the case of a 68 year-old man returning to the United Kingdom from the Cook Islands. His semen was positive for Zika virus 62 days after his symptoms began.
        • This is the maximum documented time of Zika virus detection in semen. However, the full length of time that the virus can persist in semen after onset of symptoms remains unknown, as sequential samples were not collected.
    • 3. Presence of Zika virus in other body fluids
      • Publications on the presence of Zika virus in other body fluids that may be involved in sexual transmission have also been considered.
      • Studies have reported the presence of Zika virus by RT-PCR in saliva [17, 18] and urine [14, 15, 18-25].
      • The persistent shedding of Zika virus ribonucleic acid (RNA) in both fluids has been found up to 29 days after the onset of infection.
      • Culture of Zika virus in urine [14, 18, 20, 26] and saliva[18] has also been reported, with the virus cultured at day six after symptom onset for both fluids.  
    • 4. Interim recommendations  
      • Based on growing evidence that Zika virus can be sexually transmitted, WHO recommends:
        • 1. Country health programmes should ensure that:
          • a. All people (male and female) with Zika virus infection and their sexual partners (particularly pregnant women) receive information about the risks of sexual transmission of Zika virus, contraceptive measures and safer sexual practices[a], and are provided with condoms. 
          • b. Women who have had unprotected sex and do not wish to become pregnant due to concerns about Zika virus infection have ready access to emergency contraceptive services and counselling.[27]
          • c. In order to prevent adverse pregnancy and fetal outcomes, men and women of reproductive age, living in areas where local transmission of Zika virus is known to occur, be correctly informed and oriented to consider delaying pregnancy; and follow recommendations (including the consistent use of condoms) to prevent human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), other sexually transmitted infections, and unwanted pregnancies.[27, 28]
        • 2. Sexual partners of pregnant women, living in or returning from areas where local transmission of Zika virus is known to occur, should practice safer sexa or abstinence from sexual activity for at least the whole duration of the pregnancy.
        • 3. Couples or women planning a pregnancy[b], living or returning from areas where transmission of Zika virus is known to occur, are strongly recommended to wait at least 8 weeks before trying to conceive to ensure that any possible Zika virus infection has cleared; and 6 months if the male partner was symptomatic. 
        • 4. Men and women returning from areas where transmission of Zika virus is known to occur should adopt safer sex practices or consider abstinence for at least 8 weeksc upon return. 
          • a. If before or during that period Zika virus symptoms (rash, fever, arthralgia, myalgia or conjunctivitis 29) occur, men should adopt safer sexa practices or consider abstinence for at least 6 monthsd. Women should be correctly informed about this recommendation.
          • b. WHO does not recommend routine semen testing to detect Zika virus. However, symptomatic men can be offered semen testing at the end of the 8 week period after return, according to country policy.
        • 5. Independently of considerations regarding Zika virus, WHO always recommends the use of safer sexual practices including correct and consistent use of condoms to prevent HIV, other sexually transmitted infections and unwanted pregnancies.[27]
    • 5. Guidance development
      • 5.1 Acknowledgements
        • This document has been updated with new evidence appearing in the literature by a guideline development group composed of staff from the Departments of Reproductive Health and Research; and Pandemic and Epidemic Diseases, WHO Geneva (Ian Askew, Nathalie Broutet, Pierre Formenty, Bela Ganatra, Sami Gottlieb, Metin Gulmezoglu, Ronnie Johnson, Edna Kara, Rajat Khosla,  James Kiarie, Qiu Yi Khut,  William Perea Caro, Melanie Taylor; Teodora Wi), and the Department of Communicable Diseases and Health Analysis, (Sylvain Aldighieri, Maeve Brito de Mello, Massimo Ghidinelli, Rodolfo Gomez, Maria del Pilar Ramon Pardo) and the Knowledge Management, Bioethics and Research Office, WHO Regional Office for the Americas (Ludovic Reveiz). 
      • 5.2 Guidance development methods 
        • This document was developed based on a review of relevant literature and guideline development group discussion and consensus.
        • Relevant literature was sourced from MEDLINE using the following search terms: flavivirus; sexual transmission; transmission; and Zika. The guideline development group reached consensus on the recommendations through group discussion. 
      • 5.3 Declaration of interests  
        • Interests have been declared in-line with WHO policy and no conflicts of interest identified from any of the urged contributors. 
      • 5.4 Review date
        • Unless important changes are urged by new evidence, these recommendations will remain valid until November 2016 if no new data become available before this date. The Department of Reproductive Health and Research at WHO Geneva will be responsible for reviewing this guideline at that time in light of new and available evidence, and updating it as appropriate. 
    • 6. References
      • 1. WHO Media Center WHO Director General addresses media  after Zika Emergency Committee. 08/03/2016 http://www.who.int/mediacentre/news/statements/2016/zika-ec/en/ Accessed 14 May 2016
      • 2. Foy BD, Kobylinski KC, Chilson Foy JL, et al. ‘Probable non-vector-borne transmission of Zika virus’, Colorado, USA. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17(5):880–88
      • 3. Hill SL, Russell K, Hennessey M, et al. Transmission of Zika virus through sexual contact with travellers to areas of ongoing transmission — continental United States, 2016. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2016;65:215-216
      • 4. D'Ortenzio E, Matheron S, de Lamballerie X, Hubert B, Piorkowski G, Maquart M, Descamps D,Damond F, Yazdanpanah Y, Leparc-Goffart I. Evidence of sexual transmission of Zika virus. N Engl J Med. 2016 Apr 1 
      • 5. Venturi G, Zammarchi L, Fortuna C, Remoli M, Benedetti E, Fiorentini C, Trotta M, Rizzo C, Mantella A, Rezza G, Bartoloni A. An autochthonous case of Zika due to possible sexual transmission, Florence, Italy, 2014. Euro Surveill. 2016;21(8):pii=30148. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2016.21.8.30148 Accessed 27 April 2016
      • 6. Deckard DT, Chung WM, Brooks JT, et al. Male-to-Male Sexual Transmission of Zika Virus — Texas, January 2016. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2016;65:372–374. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6514a3. Accessed 27 April 2015
      • 7. WHO Zika virus infection - Disease Outbreak News (07/03/2016). http://www.who.int/csr/don/7-march-2016zika-argentina-and-france/en/ Accessed 27 April 2016
      • 8. WHO Zika virus infection - Disease Outbreak News (15/04/2016). http://www.who.int/csr/don/15-april-2016zika-chile/en/ Accessed 27 April 2016
      • 9. WHO Zika virus infection - Disease Outbreak News (21/04/2016). http://www.who.int/csr/don/21-april-2016zika-peru/en/ Accessed 27 April 2016
      • 10. WHO Zika virus, microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome. Situation Report 21/04/2016. http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/205505/1/zikasitrep_21Apr2016_eng.pdf?ua=1 Accessed 27 April 2016
      • 11. Possible case of sexual transmission of Zika virus - Ministry of Health Manatu Hauora. http://www.health.govt.nz/news-media/media-releases/possible-case-sexual-transmissionzika-virus Accessed 27 April 2016
      • 12. Government of Canada News. Statement from the Chief Public Health Officer of Canada and Ontario's Chief Medical Officer of Health on the first positive case of sexually transmitted Zika Virus.26/04/2016. http://news.gc.ca/web/article-en.do?nid=1056379 Accessed 14 May 2016 
      • 13. ABC News Germany reports 1st sexual transmission of Zika virus. http://abcnews.go.com/Health/wireStory/germanyreports-1st-sexual-transmission-zika-virus-39093203. Accessed 19 May 2016
      • 14. Musso D, Roche C, Robin E, Nhan T, Teissier A, CaoLormeau VM. Potential sexual transmission of Zika virus; Emerg Infect Dis. 2015, Feb;21(2):359-61
      • 15. Mansuy JM, Dutertre M, Mengelle C, et al. Zika virus: high infectious viral load in semen, a new sexually transmitted pathogen? Lancet Infect Dis 2016;16:405-405.
      • 16. Atkinson B, Hearn P, Afrough B, Lumley S, Carter D, Aarons EJ, et al. Detection of Zika virus in semen [letter]. Emerg Infect Dis. 5 May 2016
      • 17. Musso D, Roche C, Nhan TX, Robin E, Teissier A, CaoLormeau VM. Detection of Zika virus in saliva.J Clin Virol. 2015;68:53-5.DOI: 10.1016/j.jcv.2015.04.021 PMID: 26071336
      • 18. Barzon L, Pacenti M, Berto A, et al. Isolation of infectious Zika virus from saliva and prolonged viral RNA shedding in a traveller returning from the Dominican Republic to Italy, January 2016. Euro Surveill 2016;21
      • 19. A.C. Gourinat, O. O'Connor, E. Calvez, C. Goarant, M. Dupont-Rouzeyrol.Detection of Zika virus in urine.Emerg. Infect. Dis., 21 (2015), pp. 84–86
      • 20. Fonseca K, Meatherall B, Zarra D, Drebot M, MacDonald J, Pabbaraju K, et al. First case of Zika virus infection in a returning Canadian traveler. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2014;91(5):1035-8. Available from: DOI: 10.4269/ajtmh.140151 PMID: 25294619
      • 21. Shinohara K, Kutsuna S, Takasaki T, Moi ML, Ikeda M, Kotaki A, Yamamoto K, Fujiya Y, Mawatari M, Takeshita N Zika fever imported from Thailand to Japan, and diagnosed by PCR in the urines., Hayakawa K, Kanagawa S, Kato Y, Ohmagari N.J Travel Med. 2016 Jan 18;23(1). pii: tav011. doi: 10.1093/jtm/tav011
      • 22. Korhonen EM, Huhtamo E, Smura T, Kallio-Kokko H, Raassina M, Vapalahti O. Zika virus infection in a traveller returning from the Maldives, June 2015. Euro Surveill. 2016;21(2). doi: 10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2016.21.2.30107.
      • 23. Campos GS, Bandeira AC, Sardi SI. Zika Virus Outbreak, Bahia, Brazil. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015 Oct;21(10):1885-6. doi: 10.3201/eid2110.150847.  PMID: 26401719
      • 24. de M Campos R, Cirne-Santos C, Meira GL, Santos LL, de Meneses MD, Friedrich J, Jansen S, Ribeiro MS, da Cruz IC, Schmidt-Chanasit J, Ferreira DF.Prolonged detection of Zika virus RNA in urine samples during the ongoing Zika virus epidemic in Brazil. J Clin Virol. 2016 Apr;77:69-70. doi: 10.1016/j.jcv.2016.02.009
      • 25. Rozé B, Najioullah F, Fergé JL, Apetse K, Brouste Y, Cesaire R, Fagour C, Fagour L, Hochedez P, Jeannin S, Joux
        Prevention of potential sexual transmission of Zika virus  J, Mehdaoui H, Valentino R, Signate A, Cabié A; GBS Zika Working Group.Zika virus detection in urine from patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome on Martinique, January 2016. Euro Surveill. 2016;21(9). doi: 10.2807/15607917.ES.2016.21.9.30154. PMID: 26967758
      • 26. Bonaldo MC, Ribeiro IP, Lima NS et al. Isolation of infective Zika virus from urine and saliva of patients in Brazil. bioRxiv The preprint server for biology. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/045443 (preprint).  
      • 27. World Health Organization, ‘Women in the context of microcephaly and Zika virus disease’, 2016. http://www.who.int/features/qa/zika-pregnancy/en/ Accessed 12 May 2016
      • 28. UNFPA, WHO and UNAIDS, ‘Position statement on condoms and the prevention of HIV, other sexually transmitted infections and unintended pregnancy’, 2015. http://www.unaids.org/en/resources/presscentre/featurestories/2015/july/20150702_condoms_prevention. Accessed 20 April 2016
      • 29. World Health Organization Regional Office for the Americas. Case Definitions. 1 April 2016.
        http://www.paho.org/hq/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=11117&Itemid=41532&lang=en
      • 30. UNAIDS Terminology Guidelines October 2011page 25. http://www.unaids.org/sites/default/files/media_asset/JC2118_terminology-guidelines_en_0.pdf Accessed 12 May 2016
      • 31. Rudolph KE, Lessler J, Moloney RM, Kmush B, Cummings DA. Incubation periods of mosquito-borne viral infections: a systematic review. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2014;90:882–91
      • 32. Lanciotti RS, Kosoy OL, Laven JJ, et al. Genetic and serologic properties of Zika virus associated with an epidemic, Yap State, Micronesia, 2007. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14:1232–9
      • 33. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Update: Interim Guidance for Health Care Providers Caring for Women of Reproductive Age with Possible Zika Virus Exposure — United States, 2016. Accessed 11 May 2016.    

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    [a] Safer sexual practices include: postponing sexual debut; non-penetrative sex; correct and consistent use of male or female condoms; and reducing the number of sexual partners.30 

    [b] See separate WHO guidance on ‘Pregnancy management in the context of Zika virus infection’ for further details (available online at http://www.who.int/csr/resources/publications/zika/pregnancy-management/en/

    [c] As the exact incubation period for Zika virus is still unknown, this period is based on the estimated upper limit of the incubation period of 14 days for related flaviviruses. [31] To this period, three times the longest published period of viremia after symptom onset (11 days)[32] has been added, and additional time allowed for variability in individuals’ immune systems. This was also the approach adopted by the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.[33]  

    [d] The recommendation on condom use is a conservative measure based on evidence to date. Given the limited data on the duration of Zika virus in semen, the longest documented time period for the persistence of detectable Zika virus RNA particles in the semen (62 days) after symptom onset has been multiplied by three.16 This is in line with recommendations made by the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.[33]

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    Keywords: WHO; Worldwide; Updates; Zika Virus.

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    #Number of New #Cholera Cases is decreasing in #Congo DR #Equateur Province (Radio Okapi, May 30 2016)

     

    Title: Number of New Cholera Cases is decreasing in Congo DR Equateur Province.

    Subject: Cholera epidemic in Dem. Rep. of Congo.

    Source: Radio Okapi, full page: (LINK).

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    RDC : baisse de cas de choléra en Equateur

    Le nombre de cas de choléra qui avait atteint le pic de 122 malades dont 25 décès à la neuvième semaine est passé à 99 cas, à la vingtième semaine, affirme lundi 30 mai le médecin chef de division provinciale de l’Equateur, Dr Munzembela. Il indique que ce nombre a encore baissé à la vingt et unième semaine, sans donner des chiffres exacts, grâce à une bonne prise en charge des malades. L’épidémie est donc sous contrôle, soutient Dr Munzembela.

    (…)

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    Keywords: Congo DR; Cholera.

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    #Ebola Virus Disease #Epidemic in #Guinea, May 30 2016 #Update (French Embassy, update)

     

    Title: Ebola Virus Disease Epidemic in Guinea, May 30 2016 Update.

    Subject: EVD epidemic in Guinea, daily update.

    Source: French Embassy in Guinea, full page: (LINK). Article in French.

    Code: [      ]

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    Ebola : point de situation au 30 mai 2016

    De nouveaux cas de fièvre hémorragique virale Ebola ont été signalés dans la préfecture de N’Zérékoré en Guinée Forestière.

    Tout déplacement dans cette zone est déconseillé à l’exception de la participation à des missions médicales agréées au préalable.

     

    Situation épidémiologique au 28 mai 2016

    • Pas de nouveau cas confirmé à la date du 28 mai.
      • Depuis le 29 février (1er cas suspect) :
        • 10 cas probables et confirmés (dont 7 confirmés et 3 probables).
        • 8 décès (cas probables et confirmés).
      • Aucun personnel de santé n’est concerné

     

    Veille sanitaire de l’Ambassade de France

    • L’Ambassade de France continue de suivre en temps réel l’évolution de la situation, en liaison avec le ministère guinéen de la Santé, l’OMS et les ONG présentes sur le terrain, ses partenaires européens, et, à Paris, avec le Centre de Crise du Ministère des Affaires étrangères.

     

    Conseils pratiques et recommandations

    • De limiter au strict nécessaire les déplacements dans les zones où l’épidémie est active.
    • Ne pas manger de viande de brousse.
    • Se laver les mains fréquemment.
    • Ne pas toucher de façon prolongée des malades ayant une forte fièvre ou une gastro-entérite.
    • Quand une personne présente de la température, la conduite à tenir reste la suivante : recherche du paludisme, examen médical et surveillance pour suivre l’évolution de la maladie.

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    En cas de symptômes (fièvre, douleurs musculaires, etc.), vous êtes invités à prendre contact avec les services de l’ambassade de France, le centre médico-social au (+224) 656.44.87.45 (du lundi au vendredi de 08h30 à 12h00 et de 14h à 17h15 et le samedi de 09h à 12h) et au (+224) 625.25.87.72 en dehors des horaires d’ouverture.

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    Keywords: Ebola; Ebola-Makona; Updates; France; Guinea.

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    #Saudi Arabia reported no new #MERS-CoV cases in the last 24 hours (@SaudiMOH, May 30 2016, edited)

     

    Title: Saudi Arabia reported no new MERS-CoV cases in the last 24 hours.

    Subject: MERS Coronavirus Epidemic in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, daily update.

    Source: Saudi Arabia Ministry of Health, full page: (LINK).

    Code: [      ]

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    MOH: 'No New Corona Cases Recorded

    5/30/2016

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    New Cases:

    • No reports

    New Recoveries:

    • No reports

    New Deaths:

    • No reports

    Cumulative number of confirmed cases and deaths since June 2012:

    [Total No. of Cases – Total No. of Deaths – Patients under treatment]

    • 1383At least 592 - 1

    ______

    (…)

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    Keywords: Saudi Arabia; Updates; MERS-CoV.

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    The #Mediterranean #Migrants’ #Genocide (Photo via Reuters, May 30 2016)

     

    Title: The Mediterranean Migrants’ Genocide.

    Subject: Mass Migration Events, Mediterranean Region.

    Source: Reuters, full page: (LINK). Via Instagram.

    Code: [  SOC  ]

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    Keywords: European Region; Italy; Migrants; Society; Poverty; Wars.

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    29 May 2016

    #Zika in #Brazil: #Olympic #Dream or #PublicHealth #Nightmare? (El Pais, May 29 2016)

     

    Title: Zika in Brazil: Olympic Dream or Public Health Nightmare?

    Subject: Zika Virus Disease pan-epidemics in the Americas, public health issues related to mass gathering events.

    Source: El Pais, full page: (LINK). Article in Spanish.

    Code: [      ]

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    Sueño olímpico o pesadilla sanitaria

    De vuelta a España tras ocho meses en los EE UU, me ha dejado muy desconcertado lo poco que se habla en Europa del virus del zika y de sus consecuencias. Me sorprende el poco eco que esta epidemia está recibiendo en los medios de comunicación y en el debate público. Afortunadamente, organismos tan importantes como el Center for Disease Control and Prevention americano (CDC), que trabajan continuamente para analizar la evolución de este virus, entre otros, están compartiendo públicamente cierta información que deberíamos tener en cuenta

    (…)

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    Keywords: Brazil; Zika Virus; Mass Gathering Events; Public Health.

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    #Congo DR, #YellowFever #vaccination #campaign started in Kongo-Central province (Radio Okapi, May 29 2016)

     

    Title: Congo DR, Yellow Fever vaccination campaign started in Kongo-Central province.

    Subject: Yellow Fever outbreak in Congo DR, vaccination campaign.

    Source: Radio Okapi, full page: (LINK). Article in French.

    Code: [      ]

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    Kongo-Central: lancement de la vaccination contre la fièvre jaune

    Les habitants des neuf zones de santé du Kongo-Central frontalières avec l’Angola sont invitées à se faire vacciner pour se protéger contre la fièvre jaune. La ministre provinciale de la santé, docteur Thérèse Louise Mambu Niangi, a lancé cet appel lors du coup d’envoi de la campagne de vaccination contre la maladie jeudi 26 mai à la zone de santé de Matadi.

    (…)

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    Keywords: Congo DR; Yellow Fever; Vaccines.

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    #Zika #Virus #Research #References #Library–May 29 2016 #Update, Issue No. 18

     

    Title: #Zika #Virus #Research #References #Library–May 29 2016 #Update, Issue No. 18.

    Subject: Zika Virus, Zika Congenital Infection, related Neurologic and Fetal Neurodevelopmental complication; References Library update.

    Source: AMEDEO, homepage: (LINK).

    Code: [   R   ]

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    This Week’s References:

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    1. AKINER MM, Demirci B, Babuadze G, Robert V, et al.
      • Correction: Spread of the Invasive Mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in the Black Sea Region Increases Risk of Chikungunya, Dengue, and Zika Outbreaks in Europe.
    2. DUARTE G.
    3. BARREIRO P.
    4. LEAO JC, Gueiros LA, Lodi G, Robinson NA, et al.
    5. MALKKI H.
    6. MASSEY TH, Robertson NP.
    7. VAN DEN BERG B, van den Beukel JC, Alsma J, van der Eijk AA, et al.
    8. VENTURA CV, Maia M, Travassos SB, Martins TT, et al.
      • Risk Factors Associated With the Ophthalmoscopic Findings Identified in Infants With Presumed Zika Virus Congenital Infection.
    9. HOTEZ PJ.
    10. LOTUFO PA.
    11. ALLEN M, Blumenstock JS.
    12. ENGEL J.
    13. WIWANITKIT V.
    14. WIWANITKIT V.
    15. ROSTADMO M.
    16. GONG Z, Gao Y, Han GZ.
    17. O'CONNOR M.
    18. DREDZE M, Broniatowski DA, Hilyard KM.
    19. CAMPOS GC, Sardi SI, Sarno M, Brites C, et al.
    20. ALIOTA MT, Caine EA, Walker EC, Larkin KE, et al.
    21. GRANT A, Ponia SS, Tripathi S, Balasubramaniam V, et al.
    22. TRIPP RA, Ross T.
    23. OLADAPO OT, Souza JP, De Mucio B, de Leon RG, et al.
    24. ZHANG Y, Chen W, Wong G, Bi Y, et al.
    25. DUIJSTER JW, Goorhuis A, van Genderen PJ, Visser LG, et al.
      • Zika virus infection in 18 travellers returning from Surinam and the Dominican Republic, The Netherlands, November 2015-March 2016.
    26. VOROU R.
      • Zika virus, vectors, reservoirs, amplifying hosts, and their potential to spread worldwide: what we know and what we should investigate urgently.
    27. RODRIGUEZ-MORALES AJ, Patino-Cadavid LJ, Lozada-Riascos CO, Villamil-Gomez WE, et al.
      • Mapping Zika in municipalities of one coastal department of Colombia (Sucre) using Geographic information system (GIS) during 2015-2016 outbreak: implications for public health and travel advice.
    28. DA SILVA SR, Gao SJ.
      • Zika virus update II: Recent development of animal models - proofs of association with human pathogenesis.
    29. WIWANITKIT V.
    30. QIN XF.
    31. ALFARO-MURILLO JA, Parpia AS, Fitzpatrick MC, Tamagnan JA, et al.
    32. KVAJO M, Monteiro J.
    33. YAKOB L, Walker T.
    34. BOUYER J, Chandre F, Gilles J, Baldet T, et al.
    35. BOETE C, Reeves RG.
    36. SHAN C, Xie X, Muruato AE, Rossi SL, et al.
      • An Infectious cDNA Clone of Zika Virus to Study Viral Virulence, Mosquito Transmission, and Antiviral Inhibitors.
    37. SILVEIRA FP, Campos SV.
    38. JOHNSON T.
    39. WALSH B, Sifferlin A.
    40. NAU JY.
    41. NAU JY.
    42. MCCARTHY M.
    43. COOMBES R.
    44. GULLAND A.
    45. YUNG CF, Thoon KC.
    46. GROBUSCH MP, Karimi O, Schinkel J, Codrington J, et al.
    47. MUSSO D, de Pina JJ, Nhan TX, Deparis X, et al.
    48. JAFFE S.
    49. JOHANSSON MA, Mier-Y-Teran-Romero L, Reefhuis J, Gilboa SM, et al.
    50. HOFER U.
    51. KIENY MP, Moorthy V, Bagozzi D.
    52. YAMADA T, Ogawa VA, Freire M.
    53. RODRIGUEZ-MORALES AJ, Villamil-Gomez WE, Franco-Paredes C.
      • The arboviral burden of disease caused by co-circulation and co-infection of dengue, chikungunya and Zika in the Americas.

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    Keywords: Research; Abstracts; Zika References Library.

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