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#Avian #Influenza #H7N9 in #China: Preventing the Next #SARS (@WHO, Apr. 2 ‘17)

  Title : #Avian #Influenza #H7N9 in #China: Preventing the Next #SARS. Subject : Avian Influenza, H7N9 subtype (Asian Lineage), poultry e...

24 Jul 2017

#Yemen: #Cholera #Outbreak–Daily #epidemiology #update: 23 July 2017 (@WHO EMRO, edited)


Title: #Yemen: #Cholera #Outbreak–Daily #epidemiology #update: 23 July 2017.

Subject: Cholera outbreak in Yemen, current epidemiological situation.

Source: World Health Organization (WHO), Office for the Eastern Mediterranean Region, full PDF file: (LINK).

Code: [     ]

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Yemen: Cholera Outbreak - Daily epidemiology update: 23 July 2017

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Highlights

  • From 27 April to 22 July 2017, 384,719 suspected cholera cases and 1,858 deaths (CFR: 0.5%) have been reported in 91.3% (21/23) of Yemen governorates, and 88.6% (295/333) of the districts.


Geographical distribution of cases

  • The five most affected governorates were:
    • Amanat Al Asimah,
    • Al Hudaydah, Hajjah,
    • Amran and
    • Ibb
  • with 53.5% (205,933/384,719) of the cases reported since 27 April 2017.
  • Al Dhaele’e, Al Mahwit and Amran governorates had the highest attack rates (28.7‰, 28.3‰ and 25.7‰ respectively)
  • Raymah ,Hajjah and Ibb governorates reported the highest case fatality ratios (1.3% ,0.9% and 0.8% respectively) (see table). 
  • The five most affected districts were Al Hali district (Al Hudaydah governorate, 14,566 suspected cases and 23 deaths), Ma’ain (Amanat Al Asimah governorate, 9,430 suspected cases and 10 deaths), Bani Al Harith (Amanat Al Asimah governorate, 9,243 suspected cases and 10 deaths), As Sabain (Amanat Al Asimah governorate, 7,440 suspected cases and 11 deaths), and Al Hawak (Al Hudaydah governorate, 7,164 suspected cases and 11 deaths)

(…)

For further information:

Dr Ahmed ZOUITEN Senior Emergency Health Adviser Phone: +41 79 475 5532; +967730044449 E-mail: zouitena@who.int  - 
Ms Lauren O’Connor Communication officer oconnorl@who.int  

Note: This report is an update to the weekly epidemiology bulletin.

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Keywords: Yemen; Cholera; Updates; WHO.

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23 Jul 2017

#Zika #Virus #Research #References #Library–July 23 2017 #Update, Issue No. 75


Title: #Zika #Virus #Research #References #Library–July 23 2017 #Update, Issue No. 75.

Subject: Zika Virus Infection and related complications research, weekly references library update.

Source: AMEDEO, homepage: (LINK).

Code: [  R  ]

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New References:

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  1. VALENTE PK.
    • Zika and Reproductive Rights in Brazil: Challenge to the Right to Health.
      • Am J Public Health. 2017 Jul 20:e1-e5. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2017.303924.
  2. MOGHADAS SM, Shoukat A, Espindola AL, Pereira RS, et al.
    • Asymptomatic Transmission and the Dynamics of Zika Infection.
      • Sci Rep. 2017;7:5829.
  3. G V A, Nama MMB, Salman FJ, AlGhareeb ZHA, et al.
    • Appraisal of the Preparedness of Midwives and Nurses in Bahrain to Conduct Early Screening for Zika Virus Infection in Pregnant Women.
      • Disaster Med Public Health Prep. 2017 Jul 20:1-7. doi: 10.1017/dmp.2017.
  4. BUENO FTC.
    • Health surveillance and response on a regional scale: a preliminary study of the Zika virus fever case.
      • Cien Saude Colet. 2017;22:2305-2314.
  5. HOU W, Cruz-Cosme R, Armstrong N, Obwolo LA, et al.
    • Molecular cloning and characterization of the genes encoding the proteins of Zika virus.
      • Gene. 2017 Jul 15. pii: S0378-1119(17)30572-3. doi: 10.1016/j.gene.2017.
  6. SAHINER F, Sig AK, Savasci U, Tekin K, et al.
    • Zika Virus-Associated Ocular and Neurologic Disorders: The Emergence of New Evidence.
      • Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2017 Jul 13. doi: 10.1097/INF.0000000000001689.
  7. MATYSIAK A, Roess A.
    • Interrelationship between Climatic, Ecologic, Social, and Cultural Determinants Affecting Dengue Emergence and Transmission in Puerto Rico and Their Implications for Zika Response.
      • J Trop Med. 2017;2017:8947067.
  8. ZIN AA, Tsui I, Rossetto J, Vasconcelos Z, et al.
    • Screening Criteria for Ophthalmic Manifestations of Congenital Zika Virus Infection.
      • JAMA Pediatr. 2017 Jul 17. doi: 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2017.1474.
  9. SALDANA MA, Etebari K, Hart CE, Widen SG, et al.
    • Zika virus alters the microRNA expression profile and elicits an RNAi response in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes.
      • PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2017;11:e0005760.
  10. AMORIM R, Temzi A, Griffin BD, Mouland AJ, et al.
    • Zika virus inhibits eIF2alpha-dependent stress granule assembly.
      • PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2017;11:e0005775.
  11. YUAN S, Chan JF, den-Haan H, Chik KK, et al.
    • Structure-based discovery of clinically approved drugs as Zika virus NS2B-NS3 protease inhibitors that potently inhibit Zika virus infection in vitro and in vivo.
      • Antiviral Res. 2017 Jul 13. pii: S0166-3542(17)30175.
  12. SUN J, Wu, Zhong H, Guan D, et al.
    • Returning ex-patriot Chinese to Guangdong, China, increase the risk for local transmission of Zika virus.
      • J Infect. 2017 Jul 14. pii: S0163-4453(17)30231.
  13. OLSCHLAGER S, Enfissi A, Zaruba M, Kazanji M, et al.
    • Diagnostic Validation of the RealStar(R) Zika Virus Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction Kit for Detection of Zika Virus RNA in Urine and Serum Specimens.
      • Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2017 Jun 19. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.17-0268.
  14. CASTRO M, Perez D, Guzman MG, Barrington C, et al.
    • Why Did Zika Not Explode in Cuba? The Role of Active Community Participation to Sustain Control of Vector-Borne Diseases.
      • Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2017 Jun 19. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.16-0906.
  15. NEATEROUR P, Rivera A, Galloway RL, Negron MG, et al.
    • Fatal Leptospira spp./Zika Virus Coinfection-Puerto Rico, 2016.
      • Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2017 Jun 26. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.17-0250.
  16. SANTOS VS, Oliveira SJG, Gurgel RQ, Lima DRR, et al.
    • Case Report: Microcephaly in Twins due to the Zika Virus.
      • Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2017;97:151-154.
  17. ETIENNE C, Santos TD, Espinal MA.
    • Keynote Address (November 2016): Zika Virus Disease in the Americas: A Storm in the Making.
      • Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2017;97:16-18.
  18. QUYEN NTH, Kien DTH, Rabaa M, Tuan NM, et al.
    • Chikungunya and Zika Virus Cases Detected against a Backdrop of Endemic Dengue Transmission in Vietnam.
      • Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2017;97:146-150.
  19. BERENSON AB, Trinh HN, Hirth JM, Guo F, et al.
    • Knowledge and Prevention Practices among U.S. Pregnant Immigrants from Zika Virus Outbreak Areas.
      • Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2017;97:155-162.
  20. GENDERNALIK A, Weger-Lucarelli J, Garcia Luna SM, Fauver JR, et al.
    • American Aedes vexans Mosquitoes are Competent Vectors of Zika Virus.
      • Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2017;96:1338-1340.
  21. KROW-LUCAL ER, Novosad SA, Dunn AC, Brent CR, et al.
    • Zika Virus Infection in Patient with No Known Risk Factors, Utah, USA, 2016.
      • Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23:1260-1267.
  22. HALSTEAD SB.
    • Achieving safe, effective, and durable Zika virus vaccines: lessons from dengue.
      • Lancet Infect Dis. 2017 Jul 12. pii: S1473-3099(17)30362.
  23. BALMASEDA A, Stettler K, Medialdea-Carrera R, Collado D, et al.
    • Antibody-based assay discriminates Zika virus infection from other flaviviruses.
      • Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2017 Jul 17. pii: 201704984.
  24. FRYK JJ, Marks DC, Hobson-Peters J, Watterson D, et al.
    • Reduction of Zika virus infectivity in platelet concentrates after treatment with ultraviolet C light and in plasma after treatment with methylene blue and visible light.
      • Transfusion. 2017 Jul 17. doi: 10.1111/trf.14256.

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Keywords: Research; Abstracts; Zika References Library.

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22 Jul 2017

#HK, Secretary for Food and #Health on seasonal #influenza (Jul 22 ‘17)


Title: #HK, Secretary for Food and #Health on seasonal #influenza.

Subject: Seasonal influenza epidemic in Hong Kong, current situation.

Source: Government of Hong Kong PRC SAR, full page: (LINK).

Code: [     ]

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SFH on seasonal influenza

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Following is the transcript of remarks made by the Secretary for Food and Health, Professor Sophia Chan, after attending a public function today (July 22):

Reporter: ‘’....... hospital wards with the outbreak of influenza A. What would the Hospital Authority (HA) do to control such outbreak?’’

Secretary for Food and Health: ‘’Actually the Hospital Authority has done a lot of short term measures to deal with this summer surge of flu season.

‘’One of the measures is using some of the private hospital beds of St Teresa Hospital.

‘’Another measure is to increase the number of medical and healthcare staff, using some part-time and special honorarium scheme for people already working in the hospitals.

‘'Another measure is to delay some of the non-urgent procedures in the hospitals to allow more beds to cater for the additional number of admission.

‘’The HA will continue to monitor the situation and the increased service demand.

Reporter: ‘’There has been some reports saying that hospital wards had outbreak of influenza A, for example, the Caritas Medical Centre. How would HA do to control such outbreak within wards? ‘’

Secretary for Food and Health: ‘’Infection control measures are very important in the hospitals or within the wards. Therefore, the HA really focusses on different infection control measures such as hand hygiene or other hygiene measures within the clinical wards so that people admitted to hospitals could be shielded from some of the infections around them.

(Please also refer to the Chinese portion of the transcript.)

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Keywords: HK PRC SAR; Updates; Seasonal Influenza; H3N2.

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#Influenza and other #Respiratory #Viruses #Research #References #Library– July 22 2017 Issue


Title: #Influenza and other #Respiratory #Viruses #Research #References #Library– July 22 2017 Issue.

Subject: Human and Animal Influenza Viruses, other respiratory pathogens research, weekly references library update.

Source: AMEDEO, homepage: (LINK).

Code: [  R  ]

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New References:

___

  1. MGBERE O, Ngo K, Khuwaja S, Mouzoon M, et al.
    • Pandemic-related health behavior: repeat episodes of influenza-like illness related to the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic.
      • Epidemiol Infect. 2017 Jul 20:1-7. doi: 10.1017/S0950268817001467.
  2. KANDEIL A, Kayed A, Moatasim Y, Webby RJ, et al.
    • Genetic characterization of highly pathogenic avian influenza A H5N8 viruses isolated from wild birds in Egypt.
      • J Gen Virol. 2017 Jul 18. doi: 10.1099/jgv.0.000847.
  3. TULLY CM, Chinnakannan S, Mullarkey CE, Ulaszewska M, et al.
    • Novel Bivalent Viral-Vectored Vaccines Induce Potent Humoral and Cellular Immune Responses Conferring Protection against Stringent Influenza A Virus Challenge.
      • J Immunol. 2017 Jul 19. pii: ji1600939. doi: 10.4049/jimmunol.1600939.
  4. NTURIBI E, Bhagwat AR, Coburn S, Myerburg MM, et al.
    • Intracellular Colocalization of Influenza Viral RNA and Rab11A is Dependent upon Microtubule Filaments.
      • J Virol. 2017 Jul 19. pii: JVI.01179-17. doi: 10.1128/JVI.01179.
  5. BOYOGLU-BARNUM S, Todd SO, Meng J, Barnum TR, et al.
    • Mutating the CX3C motif in the G protein should make a live respiratory syncytial virus vaccine safer and more effective.
      • J Virol. 2017 Mar 8. pii: JVI.02059-16. doi: 10.1128/JVI.02059.
  6. ZHANG L, Li H, Hai Y, Yin W, et al.
    • CpG in Combination with an Inhibitor of Notch Signaling Suppresses Formalin-Inactivated Respiratory Syncytial Virus-Enhanced Airway Hyperresponsiveness and Inflammation by Inhibiting Th17 Memory Responses and Promoting Tissue-Resident Memory Cells in Lungs.
      • J Virol. 2017;91.
  7. WIEGAND MA, Gori-Savellini G, Gandolfo C, Papa G, et al.
    • Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) vaccine vectored by a stable chimeric and replication-deficient Sendai virus protects mice without inducing enhanced disease.
      • J Virol. 2017 Mar 1. pii: JVI.02298-16. doi: 10.1128/JVI.02298.
  8. MORCL T, Hurst BL, Tarbet EB.
    • Calcium phosphate nanoparticle (CaPNP) for dose-sparing of inactivated whole virus pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 vaccine in mice.
      • Vaccine. 2017 Jul 14. pii: S0264-410X(17)30912.
  9. MAKARKOV AI, Chierzi S, Pillet S, Murai KK, et al.
    • Plant-made virus-like particles bearing influenza hemagglutinin (HA) recapitulate early interactions of native influenza virions with human monocytes/macrophages.
      • Vaccine. 2017 Jul 13. pii: S0264-410X(17)30908.
  10. ALKHERAIF AA, Topliff CL, Reddy J, Massilamany C, et al.
    • Type 2 BVDV Npro suppresses IFN-1 pathway signaling in bovine cells and augments BRSV replication.
      • Virology. 2017;507:123-134.

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Keywords: Research; Abstracts; Influenza References Library.

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21 Jul 2017

#HK, First local #blood-borne case of #Japanese #encephalitis confirmed (CHP, Jul 21 ‘17)


Title: #HK, First local #blood-borne case of #Japanese #encephalitis confirmed.

Subject: Japanese encephalitis, autochthonous case in Hong Kong.

Source: Centre for Health Protection, Hong Kong PRC SAR, full page: (LINK).

Code: [     ]

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First local blood-borne case of Japanese encephalitis confirmed

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The Centre for Health Protection (CHP) of the Department of Health today (July 21) confirmed the first local case of Japanese encephalitis (JE) transmitted by blood transfusion in hospital.

The Controller of the CHP, Dr Wong Ka-hing, said,

"Following investigations into the case reported yesterday (July 20), experts in epidemiology, public health, infection control and microbiology of the CHP and the Hospital Authority have been working closely and held meetings on public health assessment and necessary follow-up to be conducted by parties concerned."

Investigations revealed that the male patient aged 52 had received a number of blood transfusions during hospitalisation.

Residual samples of the blood transfused to the patient in the incubation period were retrieved for laboratory investigations.

Upon the CHP's testing, one blood sample from Queen Mary Hospital (QMH) and one from the Hong Kong Red Cross Blood Transfusion Service tested positive for JE virus, both originating from the same donation which was transfused to the patient on June 22.

Of note, the genetic sequence of the virus from the positive sample from QMH was identical to that of the patient. Samples from three other donations transfused to the patient on different dates tested negative.

The CHP has swiftly conducted source tracing and identified the 46-year-old male blood donor concerned who gave blood on May 29. He has been asymptomatic all along.

Contact tracing has identified two other patients who had received the donor's blood products. One is a discharged patient of QMH who received transfusion on June 2 and QMH is contacting the patient for clinical assessment and blood testing. The other is a patient of Queen Elizabeth Hospital who died of chronic illness on July 4 after surgery, during which the patient received transfusion on June 20. Relatives will be contacted.

Epidemiologically, the donor had no travel history to JE-endemic areas and his home contact has remained asymptomatic. He lives in Kingswood Villas, Tin Shui Wai and recalled no mosquito bites.

"The CHP will proceed standard public health actions as a precautionary measure. The Food and Environmental Hygiene Department (FEHD) and the Agriculture, Fisheries and Conservation Department have been informed for necessary follow-up," Dr Wong said.

Officers of the CHP will conduct site visit and field investigations by questionnaire surveys at the donor's residence for active case finding and arranging blood tests. A health talk will be held at 9.30am tomorrow (July 22) with the FEHD to deliver health advice to residents and the public.

In addition, site visit has been conducted at Grantham Hospital and a health talk was held this afternoon.

The CHP's JE hotline (2125 1122) will operate from 9am to 5.45pm this weekend and next week.

The Guangdong and Macau health authorities have been informed of the case and the CHP will issue letters to doctors and hospitals to alert them to the latest situation.

While JE is principally mosquito-borne, overseas scientific literature show that, based on nature of similar flaviviruses, blood transfusion and organ transplant are considered to be potential modes of transmission of JE virus.

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Keywords: HK PRC SAR; Updates; Japanese Encephalitis; Blood Safety.

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Highly pathogenic #avian #influenza #H5N8, #DRC [three #poultry #outbreaks] (#OIE, Jul 21 ‘17)


Title: Highly pathogenic #avian #influenza #H5N8, #DRC [three #poultry #outbreaks].

Subject: Avian Influenza, H5N8 subtype, poultry epizootics in the Dem. Rep. of the Congo.

Source: OIE, full page: (LINK).

Code: [     ]

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Highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N8, Congo (Dem. Rep. of the)

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Information received on 19/07/2017 from Mr Honoré Robert N'Lemba Mabela, Directeur et Chef de service, Service de la Production & de la Santé Animale, Ministère de l'Agriculture, Pêche et Elevage , KINSHASA, Congo (Dem. Rep. of the)

  • Summary
    • Report type    Follow-up report No. 3
    • Date of start of the event    25/04/2017
    • Date of confirmation of the event    24/05/2017
    • Report date    19/07/2017
    • Date submitted to OIE    19/07/2017
    • Reason for notification    First occurrence of a listed disease
    • Manifestation of disease    Clinical disease
    • Causal agent    Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus
    • Serotype    H5N8
    • Nature of diagnosis    Laboratory (advanced)
    • This event pertains to    a defined zone within the country
  • Summary of outbreaks   
    • Total outbreaks: 3
      • Total animals affected: Species    - Susceptible    - Cases    - Deaths    - Killed and disposed of – Slaughtered
        • Birds    - 336    - 348    - 348    - 0    - 0
      • Outbreak statistics: Species    - Apparent morbidity rate    - Apparent mortality rate    - Apparent case fatality rate    - Proportion susceptible animals lost*
        • Birds    - **    - **    - 100.00%    - **
          • *Removed from the susceptible population through death, destruction and/or slaughter
          • **Not calculated because of missing information
  • Epidemiology
    • Source of the outbreak(s) or origin of infection   
      • Unknown or inconclusive
  • Epidemiological comments   
    • Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N8 serotype clade 2.3.4.4 was confirmed.

(...)

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Keywords: OIE; Updates; Avian Influenza; H5N8 ; Poultry; DRC.

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Highly pathogenic #avian #influenza #H5N8, #Italy [two #poultry #outbreaks] (#OIE, Jul 21 ‘17)


Title: Highly pathogenic #avian #influenza #H5N8, #Italy [two #poultry #outbreaks].

Subject: Avian Influenza, H5N8 subtype, poultry epizootics in Italy.

Source: OIE, full page: (LINK).

Code: [     ]

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Highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N8, Italy

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Information received on 21/07/2017 from Prof. Dr. Romano Marabelli, Chief Veterinary Officer, Secretary General, Ministry of Health, Rome, Italy

  • Summary
    • Report type    Follow-up report No. 16
    • Date of start of the event    20/01/2017
    • Date of confirmation of the event    21/01/2017
    • Report date    21/07/2017
    • Date submitted to OIE    21/07/2017
    • Reason for notification    Recurrence of a listed disease
    • Date of previous occurrence    17/01/2015
    • Manifestation of disease    Clinical disease
    • Causal agent    Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus
    • Serotype    H5N8
    • Nature of diagnosis    Clinical, Laboratory (advanced)
    • This event pertains to    a defined zone within the country
  • Summary of outbreaks   
    • Total outbreaks: 2
      • Total animals affected: Species    - Susceptible    - Cases    - Deaths    - Killed and disposed of  - Slaughtered
        • Birds    - 20563    - 18874    - 1692    - 0    - 0
      • Outbreak statistics: Species    - Apparent morbidity rate    - Apparent mortality rate    - Apparent case fatality rate    - Proportion susceptible animals lost*
        • Birds    - 91.79%    - 8.23%    - 8.96%    - **
          • *Removed from the susceptible population through death, destruction and/or slaughter
          • **Not calculated because of missing information
  • Epidemiology
    • Source of the outbreak(s) or origin of infection   
      • Unknown or inconclusive
  • Epidemiological comments   
    • The National Reference Laboratory has sequenced HPAI subtype H5N8.
    • A protection zone of 3 km and a surveillance zone of 10 km have been established.

(...)

___

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Keywords: OIE; Updates; Avian Influenza; H5N8 ; Poultry; Italy.

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Highly pathogenic #avian #influenza #H5N8, #Italy [two #poultry #outbreaks] (#IZSVE, Jul 21 ‘17)


Title: Highly pathogenic #avian #influenza #H5N8, #Italy [two #poultry #outbreaks].

Subject: Avian Influenza, H5N8 subtype, poultry enzootic in Italy.

Source: Italy National Reference Laboratory for Avian Influenza, Padua, full page: (LINK).

Code: [     ]

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Highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N8, Italy

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|-- Outbreaks | PDF (last update: 21/07/2017) —|

|-- Map | PDF (last update: 21/07/2017) –|


Summary

  • 21/07/2017 
    • On 20 July, the National Reference Laboratory (NRL) for Avian Influenza and Newcastle Disease confirmed as positive for Avian Influenza virus subtype H5N8 two farms located in Lombardy region: a rural holding and a fattening turkey industrial farm in Mantua province.
    • Epidemiological investigations are ongoing in both outbreaks.
    • An increase in mortality was reported in the previous days in one of the sheds of the industrial farm where about 18.900 fattening female turkeys (106 day-old) were present.
    • Further information on virus characterization and on the cases will be provided as soon as available.
    • In the same date, Regional Authority of Lombardy notified a suspect of avian influenza in a laying hens farm (500.000 heads) in Mantua province.
    • Today, the NRL characterised both the viruses as Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza.

(…)

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Keywords: Avian Influenza, H5N8, Poultry; Italy, Update.

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#Cholera – #Kenya (@WHO, Jul 21 ‘17)


Title: #Cholera – #Kenya.

Subject: Cholera outbreak in Kenya, current situation.

Source: World Health Organization (WHO), full page: (LINK).

Code: [     ]

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Cholera – Kenya

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Disease Outbreak News / 21 July 2017

Since the beginning of 2017, Kenya is experiencing an upsurge of cholera cases. The first cholera outbreak reported in 2017 was in Tana River County. The outbreak started on 10 October 2016 and was controlled by April 2017.

A second wave of cholera outbreaks started in Garissa County on 2 April 2017 and was reported later in nine other counties including Nairobi, Murang’a, Vihiga, Mombasa, Turkana, Kericho, Nakuru, Kiambu, and Narok.

The outbreak is being reported in the general population and in refugee camps. In Garissa County, the outbreak is affecting mainly Dadaab refugee camps and cases and deaths are being reported from Hagadera, Dagahaleh, and IFO2 camps. In Turkana county, the disease is also affecting Kakuma and Kalobeyei refugee camps.

In addition to the outbreak reported in the general population, there have been two point source cholera outbreaks in Nairobi County.

One occurred among participants attending a conference in a Nairobi hotel on 22 June 2017. A total of 146 patients associated with this outbreak have been treated in different hospitals in Nairobi. A second outbreak occurred at the China Trade Fair held at the KICC Tsavo Ball between 10 and 12 July 2017. A total of 136 cases were reported and one death.

Currently, the outbreak is active in two counties, namely Garissa and Nairobi. As of 17 July 2017, a total of 1216 suspected cases including 14 deaths (case fatality rate: 1.2%) have been reported since 1 January 2017. In the week ending 16 July 2017, a total of 38 cases with no deaths were reported.

A total of 124 cases tested positive for Vibrio cholerae in the reference laboratory. In the week ending 25 June 2017, 18 samples out of 25 tested positive for Vibrio cholerae Ogawa by culture at the National Public Health Laboratory in Nairobi.

The main causative factors of the current outbreak include the high population density that is conducive to the propagation and spread of the disease, mass gatherings (a wedding party held in Karen and in a hotel during an international conference), low access to safe water and proper sanitation and the massive population movements in country and with neighbouring countries.

Since December 2014, the Republic of Kenya has been experiencing continuous large outbreaks of cholera, with a cumulative total of 17 597 cases reported (10 568 cases reported in 2015 and 6448 in 2016).


Public health response

The country has activated the national task force to coordinate the response to the outbreak. Since January 2017, WHO and partners are providing technical support to the country for the control of the outbreak. The country will develop a response plan with focus on the preparedness interventions to avert further spread of the outbreak.

The WHO country office will repurpose their staff members and experts deployed in Nairobi for the management of the post El Niño effects in the Horn of Africa to support the quick control of this outbreak. WHO will also support the five most at risk counties with disease surveillance and response coordination. Partners on the ground are committed to provide support to the ongoing response efforts including support to primary health care and social mobilization by United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF).


WHO risk assessment

Cholera is an acute enteric infection caused by the ingestion of bacterium Vibrio cholerae present in faecally contaminated water or food. It is primarily linked to insufficient access to safe water and adequate sanitation. Cholera is always considered a potentially serious infectious disease and can cause high morbidity and mortality. It has the potential to spread rapidly, depending on the exposure frequency, population exposed and the context.

Cholera outbreaks have been reported in the Republic of Kenya every year with large cyclical epidemics every five to seven years.

The risk of the current outbreak is assessed as high at national and regional levels and moderate at global level. The outbreak occurred in the context of a sub-regional drought, conflicts and insecurity in the Horn of Africa. In addition, the outbreak is affecting the densely populated capital city Nairobi, and two large refugee camps (Kakuma and Dadaab) with massive population movements within country and between neighbouring countries.

Previous large outbreaks in the Republic of Kenya have originated from similar settings, and the risk for propagation of cholera within the affected area as well as to other parts of the country is high. The country has identified a limited capacity for response and low access to safe water. There is an opportunity to implement early preparedness and response measures to contain the outbreak and prevent spread.

The current outbreaks linked to mass gathering activities poses additional risk of food safety as well as the need to conduct sanitary inspection in restaurants and hotels.


WHO recommendations

WHO recommends improving the readiness of counties and health facilities to early detect and respond to the cholera outbreak as well as the reinforcement of coordination and multisectoral approaches. In addition, hygiene practices in households, restaurant, hotels, refugee camps and health facilities should be improved and food safety interventions should be strengthened.

WHO does not recommend any restriction on travel and trade to the Republic of Kenya based on the information available on the current outbreak.

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Keywords: WHO; Updates; Cholera; Kenya.

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#WestNile fever in #Europe in 2017; updated 21 July (@ECDC_EU, summary)


Title: #WestNile fever in #Europe in 2017; updated 21 July.

Subject: WNV activity in the European Region, current situation.

Source: European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC), full page: (LINK).

Code: [     ]

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West Nile fever in Europe in 2017; updated 21 July

___


Summary

  • This week the first confirmed human case of West Nile fever in the EU was reported and detected in southern Greece.
  • In the neighbouring countries, three new cases have been detected in Israel of which one is confirmed.
  • Since the beginning of the 2017 transmission season and as of 20 July 2017, one human case of West Nile fever has been reported in the EU.
  • In the neighbouring countries, one confirmed case and three probable cases have been reported by Israel.

(…)

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Keywords: ECDC; Updates; European Region; WNV; Israel; Greece.

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