22 Oct 2014

#Saudi Arabia reported a new #MERS-CoV case; an earlier case died (@SaudiMOH, October 22 2014, edited)

[Source: Saudi Arabia Ministry of Health, full page: (LINK). Edited.]

#Saudi Arabia reported a new #MERS-CoV case; an earlier case died [      ][      ]

10/22/2014

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New Cases:

  1. man, 46 years old, Saudi national, resident in Medina, currently hospitalized.

Earlier reported cases discharged from hospital:

  • No reports

Deaths in previously announced cases:

  1. man, 56 years old, Saudi national, resident in Taif, with pre-existing medical condition.

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#Epidemiological #update: #MERS-CoV case imported to #Turkey (@ECDC_EU, October 22 2014)

[Source: European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC), full page: (LINK).]

Epidemiological update: MERS-CoV case imported to Turkey [      ]

22 Oct 2014

On 18 October 2014, the Ministry of Health Turkey reported that a Turkish citizen working in Saudi Arabia died on 11 October 2014, ten days after onset of a confirmed MERS-CoV infection.

The case returned to Turkey on 10 October 2014. It is assumed that the case was symptomatic during the flight. The local health authorities are conducting contact tracing.

 

Worldwide situation

Overall, 906 laboratory-confirmed cases of MERS-CoV have been reported to the public health authorities worldwide, including 361 deaths as of 21 October 2014 (Figure 1).

 

Figure 1. Distribution of confirmed cases of MERS-CoV reported as of 21 October 2014, by date and place of probable infection (n=906)

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Most of the cases have occurred in the Middle East (Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Qatar, Jordan, Oman, Kuwait, Egypt, Yemen, Lebanon and Iran) (Table 1).

Between 1 September and 21 October 2014, the health authorities in Saudi Arabia reported 29 cases, 15 of which were in Taif.

Twenty-four of them (83%) are male, of which 20 (83%) above 40 years of age.

Comorbidities were reported in 20 of the 29 cases. Four cases were reported among healthcare workers. Several cases had contact with animals, including camels, and some reported having drunk camel milk.

On 20 October, the Ministry of Health of Saudi Arabia issued a press release about the implementation of measures to control the cluster of cases in Taif, in particular addressing the dialysis units

 

Table 1. Number of confirmed cases and deaths, by country of reporting as of 21 October 2014

[Reporting country – Cases – Deaths - Date of onset/reporting for most recent cases]

  • Middle East
    • Saudi Arabia – 771 – 328 - 21/10/2014
    • United Arab Emirates – 73 – 9 - 11/06/2014
    • Qatar – 8 – 4 - 12/10/2014
    • Jordan – 18 – 5 - 23/05/2014
    • Oman – 2 – 2 - 20/12/2013
    • Kuwait – 3 – 1 - 07/11/2013
    • Egypt – 1 – 0 - 22/04/2014
    • Yemen – 1 – 1 - 17/03/2014
    • Lebanon – 1 – 0 - 22/04/2012
    • Iran – 5 – 2 - 25/06/2014
  • Europe
    • Turkey – 1 – 1 - 06/10/2014
    • Austria – 1 – 0 - 29/09/2014
    • United Kingdom – 4 – 3 - 06/02/2013
    • Germany – 2 – 1 - 08/03/2013
    • France – 2 – 1 - 08/05/2013
    • Italy – 1 – 0 - 31/05/2013
    • Greece – 1 – 1 - 08/04/2014
    • Netherlands – 2 – 0 - 05/05/2014
  • Rest of the world
    • Tunisia – 3 – 1 - 01/05/2013
    • Algeria – 2 – 1 - 24/05/2014
    • Malaysia – 1 – 1 - 08/04/2014
    • Philippines – 1 – 0 - 11/04/2014
    • United States of America – 2 – 0 - 01/05/2014
  • Total – 906 – 361

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Geographical distribution

All cases reported outside of the Middle East have had a recent travel history to the Middle East or contact with a case who had travelled from the Middle East (Figure 2).

 

Figure 2. Geographical distribution of confirmed MERS-CoV cases and place of probable infection, worldwide, as of 21 October 2014 (n=906)

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Conclusions

  • The incidence of cases in September and October 2014 is slightly higher than in July and August 2014.
    • This pattern was also observed in 2012 and 2013.
    • The majority of MERS-CoV cases are still being reported from the Arabian Peninsula, specifically from Saudi Arabia, and all cases have epidemiological links to the outbreak epicentre.
  • According to the pattern observed in 2012 and 2013, more cases could be observed in the coming weeks.
  • The latest importation to the EU (Austria) and to Turkey are not unexpected and do not indicate a significant change in the epidemiology of the disease.
    • Importation of MERS-CoV cases to the EU remains possible.
    • However, the risk of sustained human-to-human transmission remains very low in Europe.

 

Further Reading

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#Ebola, La #vigilance reste en vigueur en #Algérie (Le Temps d'Algérie, October 22 2014)

[Source: Le Temps d’Algérie, full page: (LINK).]

La vigilance reste en vigueur en Algérie [      ]

Virus Ebola / La vigilance reste en vigueur en Algérie. «Aucun cas d'affection par le virus Ebola n'a été enregistré, mais la vigilance reste en vigueur en Algérie. Notre dispositif anti-Ebola et coronavirus est réévalué régulièrement par un comité d'experts pour éviter tout risque de contamination», a indiqué hier un responsable du ministère de la Santé.

(…)

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#Ebola: #Newark, #Plane #passenger hospitalized after screening (CBS News, October 22 2014)

[Source: CBS, full page: (LINK).]

Plane passenger hospitalized after Ebola screening [      ]

NEWARK, N.J. -- An airline passenger was being evaluated at a hospital in Newark Tuesday due to Ebola concerns, reports CBS New York. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention spokesperson Carol Crawford said the passenger was "identified as reporting symptoms or having a potential exposure to Ebola" during the enhanced screening process for those arriving in the U.S. from the West African nations of Liberia, Sierra Leone and Guinea.

(…)

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Mosquito-borne #chikungunya virus has infected more than 200 #Canadians (CTVNews.ca, October 22 2014)

[Source: CTV, full page: (LINK).]

Mosquito-borne chikungunya virus has infected more than 200 Canadians [      ]

Health Canada says more than 200 Canadians have been infected by a virus that has sickened hundreds of thousands of people in the Caribbean and spurred a state of emergency

(…)

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Two #Passengers From #Liberia To #Chicago Quarantined (CBS Chicago, October 22 2014)

[Source: CBS, full page: (LINK).]

Two Passengers From Liberia To Chicago Quarantined [      ]

(CBS) – Two passengers who were reportedly sick while traveling to Chicago from Libera are being quarantined at Chicago hospitals, according to the Mayor’s Office.

(…)

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Distinct #patterns of B-cell #activation and #priming by natural #influenza #infection versus inactivated influenza #vaccination (J Infect Dis., abstract, edited)

[Source: Journal of Infectious Diseases, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Distinct patterns of B-cell activation and priming by natural influenza infection versus inactivated influenza vaccination [      ]

Xiao-Song He 1,7, Tyson H. Holmes 2, Mrinmoy Sanyal 1,7, Randy A. Albrecht 8, Adolfo García-Sastre 8,9, Cornelia L. Dekker 3, Mark M. Davis 4,5,6 and Harry B. Greenberg 1,4,7

Author Affiliations: 1Department of Medicine 2Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences 3Department of Pediatrics 4Department of Microbiology and Immunology 5Institute for Immunity, Transplantation and Infection 6Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305 7VA Palo Alto Health Care System, Palo Alto, CA 94304 8Department of Microbiology and Global Health and Emerging Pathogens Institute 9Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY 10029

To whom correspondence should be addressed: Xiao-Song He, PhD, VA Medical Center 154C, 3801 Miranda Avenue, Palo Alto, CA 94304 (xiaosong@stanford.edu).

 

Abstract

Background.

The human B-cell response to natural influenza infection has not been extensively investigated at the polyclonal level.

Methods.

The overall B-cell response of patients acutely infected with the 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus (pH1N1) was analyzed by determining the acute reactivity of plasmablast-derived polyclonal antibodies (PPAb) to influenza proteins. Recipients of inactivated influenza vaccine containing the same pH1N1 strain were studied for comparison.

Results.

During acute infection robust plasmablast responses to the infecting virus were detected, characterized by a greater PPAb reactivity to the conserved influenza nuclear protein and to heterovariant and heterosubtypic hemagglutinins in comparison to responses to the inactivated pH1N1 vaccine. In the pH1N1 vaccinees, the presence of baseline serum neutralizing antibodies against pH1N1, suggesting previous exposure to natural pH1N1 infection, did not affect the plasmablast response to vaccination; whereas repeated immunization with inactivated pH1N1 vaccine resulted in significantly reduced vaccine-specific and cross-reactive PPAb responses.

Conclusions.

Natural pH1N1 infection and inactivated pH1N1 vaccination result in very distinct patterns of B-cell activation and priming. These differences are likely to be associated with differences in protective immunity, especially cross-protection against heterovariant and heterosubtypic influenza strains.

Received August 19, 2014. Revision received October 8, 2014. Accepted October 10, 2014.

© The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

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#Ebola. Le #caméraman de #NBC est guéri et sortira de l'hôpital ce mercredi (@ouestfrancefr, October 22 2014)

[Source: Ouest France, full page: (LINK).]

Ébola. Le caméraman de NBC est guéri et sortira de l'hôpital ce mercredi [   !   ]

Ashoka Mukpo « sera autorisé à quitter l'unité (spécialisée de l'hôpital) demain mercredi », a annoncé le Nebraska Medical Center, où il était soigné, dans un communiqué.« Un test de sang négatif confirmé par les CDC (Centres fédéraux de contrôle et de prévention des maladies) a montré qu'Ashoka...

(…)

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#Influenza #update, 20 October 2014 - Update number 222 (@WHO, edited)

[Source: World Health Organization, full page: (LINK). Edited.]

Influenza update, 2 October 2014 - Update number 222 [      ]

[Open map in new window jpg, 466kb]

 

Summary

  • Globally, influenza activity remained low, with the exception of some tropical countries in the Americas and some Pacific Islands.
    • In Europe and North America, overall influenza activity remained at inter-seasonal levels.
    • In tropical countries of the Americas, influenza B co-circulated with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV).
    • In Africa and western Asia, influenza activity was low.
    • In eastern Asia, influenza activity in most countries remained low or decreased after some influenza A(H3N2) activity in August and September.
    • In tropical Asia, influenza activity continued to decrease or remain low with influenza A(H3N2) predominant.
    • In the southern hemisphere, influenza activity decreased in general except in several Pacific Islands where ILI activity remained high.
      • In the temperate zone of South America, influenza-like illness (ILI) decreased and continued to be associated with RSV.
      • Influenza A(H3N2) virus was the most frequently detected influenza virus.
      • In Australia and New Zealand Influenza activity also decreased.
    • The WHO recommendation on the composition of influenza vaccines for the southern hemisphere 2015 was announced on 25 Sept.
    • Due to changes in data collection platforms, data from the WHO Regional Office for Europe are temporarily not available at global level.
      • Those data will be uploaded to FluNet and FluID as soon as possible.
      • Information on European influenza activity can be found at http://www.flunewseurope.org/
    • Full influenza update: Download PDF pdf, 706kb

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#USA, #UPDATE ON #CLINICAL #STATUS OF #EBOLA #PATIENT AT THE #NIH CLINICAL CENTER (October 22 2014)

[Source: US National Institute of Health, full page: (LINK).]

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services / NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH NIH News / NIH Office of the Director (OD) <http://www.nih.gov/icd/od/> / For Immediate Release: Tuesday, October 21, 2014 / CONTACT: NIH Office of Communication, 301-496-5787, <e-mail:nmb@od.nih.gov>

UPDATE ON CLINICAL STATUS OF EBOLA PATIENT AT THE NIH CLINICAL CENTER [      ]

The NIH has received countless inquiries and expressions of support for Ms. Nina Pham, the Texas nurse who was admitted to the NIH Clinical Center Special Clinical Studies Unit on Thursday, October 16, with Ebola virus disease.

The NIH Clinical Center staff has shared the general sentiments with her and Ms. Pham has expressed her gratitude for everyone's concerns and well wishes.

Ms. Pham's clinical status has been upgraded from fair to good. No additional details are available at this time.

About the NIH Clinical Center: The NIH Clinical Center is the clinical research hospital for the National Institutes of Health. Through clinical research, clinician-investigators translate laboratory discoveries into better treatments, therapies and interventions to improve the nation's health. More information: <http://clinicalcenter.nih.gov>.

About the National Institutes of Health (NIH): NIH, the nation's medical research agency, includes 27 Institutes and Centers and is a component of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. NIH is the primary federal agency conducting and supporting basic, clinical, and translational medical research, and is investigating the causes, treatments, and cures for both common and rare diseases. For more information about NIH and its programs, visit <www.nih.gov>.

NIH...Turning Discovery into Health -- Registered, U.S. Patent and Trademark Office

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