BOA1

2 Mar 2015

#Guinea says #Ebola #patients sent home after botched #blood #tests (Channel NewsAsia, March 2 2015)

[Source: Channel News Asia, full page: (LINK).]

Exclusive: Guinea says Ebola patients sent home after botched blood tests [      ]

Health officials botched more than 20 Ebola blood tests in January and February which led to the release of at least four positive patients, two of whom later died, Guinea's anti-Ebola coordinator and other health officials told Reuters.

(…)

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#Severity of #Influenza #H1N1pdm09 #Illness and Emergence of D225G Variant, 2013–14 Influenza Season, #Florida, #USA (@CDC_EIDjournal, edited)

[Source: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal, full page: (LINK). Edited.]

Volume 21, Number 4—April 2015 / Dispatch

Severity of Influenza A(H1N1) Illness and Emergence of D225G Variant, 2013–14 Influenza Season, Florida, USA [      ]

Nicole M. Iovine, J. Glenn Morris, Kristianna Fredenburg, Kenneth Rand, Hassan Alnuaimat, Gloria Lipori, Joseph Brew, and John A. Lednicky

Author affiliations: University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA (N.M. Iovine, J.G. Morris Jr., K. Fredenburg, K. Rand, H. Alnuaimat, G. Lipori, J.A. Lednicky); Florida Department of Health, Gainesville (J. Brew)

 

Abstract

Despite a regional decline in influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus infections during 2013–14, cases at a Florida hospital were more severe than those during 2009–10. Examined strains had a hemagglutinin polymorphism associated with enhanced binding to lower respiratory tract receptors. Genetic changes in this virus must be monitored to predict the effect of future pandemic viruses.

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In 2009, a novel influenza virus, influenza A(H1N1)pdm09, emerged. The resulting pandemic disproportionately affected persons <65 years of age (1), but illness caused by the virus was similar in severity to that caused by seasonal influenza (2). As the 2013–14 influenza season progressed, physicians at a Florida hospital noted that patients <65 years of age were affected in numbers similar to those seen in 2009–10, but with increased severity. To investigate these observations, we obtained the number of influenza admissions during the 2013–14 season, characterized pathologic findings in deceased patients, sequenced subtype H1N1 viruses, and assessed receptor-specific characteristics.

 


The Study

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Figure 1

Thumbnail of Proportion of all emergency department visits attributable to influenza-like illness, 2009–10 versus 2013–14 influenza seasons, Florida Department of Health Region 3, Florida, USA. Emergency department visits for influenza-like illness are shown as a proportion of total emergency department visits. Week 21 corresponds to the end of May for both influenza seasons, and week 12 corresponds to the end of March.

Figure 1. Proportion of all emergency department visits attributable to influenza-like illness, 2009–10 versus 2013–14 influenza seasons, Florida Department of Health Region 3, Florida, USA. Emergency department visits for influenza-like illness are shown...

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Studies were approved by the University of Florida Institutional Review Board and the Florida Department of Health. Data on influenza-like illness (ILI) were obtained from the 13-county Florida Department of Health Region 3 (2010 population 2.2 million) of Florida’s Electronic Surveillance System for the Early Notification of Community-based Epidemics (3). ILI-associated emergency department visits were defined as those having a chief complaint containing the words influenza or flu or the word fever plus cough or sore throat. Visits for ILI as a proportion of total emergency department visits are shown in Figure 1. During August 2009–March 2010, a total of 12,022 (2.18%) of 549,101 illnesses among all patients visiting a hospital emergency department met the ILI case definition. During the same period in 2013–14, a total of 12,496 (1.67%) of 746,560 illnesses met the case definition (p<0.0001 by χ2 test).

During September 1, 2013–March 21, 2014, we tracked test results for influenza-positive inpatients and outpatients at a major tertiary referral center for the north Florida region. Rapid point-of-care and respiratory virus panel tests were performed: 808 (>97%) of 826 positive samples were influenza A virus, and of 181 samples subtyped, 163 (90%) were H1N1 virus. During this period, 387 patients with laboratory-confirmed influenza were admitted to the hospital; 15 died, yielding an influenza-associated death rate of 3.9%. Each deceased patient had >1 risk factors for severe influenza, placing them in a high-risk group as defined by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (4) (Table(http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/21/4/14-1375-t1)). Documentation of influenza vaccination was found for only 3 of the 15 deceased patients. Similar data for the 2009–10 influenza season were not available.

To identify patients admitted to the hospital’s medical intensive care unit (MICU) for influenza during August 1, 2013–March 31, 2014, we searched the University of Florida’s Health Integrated Data Repository for patients with diagnosis codes from the International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision (ICD-9), for influenza (487) or novel influenza (488) listed among the first 10 diagnoses. We used the number of patients admitted with these codes as a marker of disease severity. The mean age of these patients was 50.2 years, which did not differ greatly from the mean age of 43.4 years in 2009–10 (Mann-Whitney U test). Of 1,024 patients admitted to the MICU in 2013–14, a total of 49 had influenza, yielding an admission rate of 4.8%. During the same period in 2009–10, a total of 10 of 821 MICU patients were admitted with influenza, yielding an admission rate of 1.2%. This difference was statistically significant (p<0.0001 by 2-tailed Fisher exact test). The risk ratio for MICU admission for influenza in 2013–14 versus 2009–10 was 3.7 (95% CI 1.9–7.3). Therefore, although the overall number of ILIs in the community was lower in 2013–14 versus 2009–10 (Figure 1), illness in 2013–14 was more severe, as reflected by a higher MICU admission rate.

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Figure 2

Thumbnail of Results of autopsies for patients who died from influenza A(H1N1) virus infection during the 2013–14 influenza season in Florida Department of Health Region 3, Florida, USA. A) Marked intraalveolar hemorrhage (stars) and hyaline membranes (arrows) were seen during the early phase of diffuse alveolar damage and were the most common findings in the 5 autopsy cases reviewed. B) Hyaline membranes, a proteinaceous exudate replacing the alveolar walls (arrows), are prominent in this lung

Figure 2. Results of autopsies for patients who died from influenza A(H1N1) virus infection during the 2013–14 influenza season in Florida Department of Health Region 3, Florida, USA. A) Marked intraalveolar hemorrhage (stars)...

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Of the 15 deaths in 2013–14, twelve occurred in the MICU, all among the 49 patients admitted for influenza (death rate 24.5%). The mean age of deceased patients was 48.2 (range 25–89) years; 40% were <40 years of age. Acute respiratory distress syndrome and influenza A virus infection were diagnosed in all 12; none had bacterial infection before testing positive for influenza. Ten of the 12 viruses were subtyped by using the respiratory virus panel: all 10 were H1N1 virus. We reviewed autopsy findings for 5 of the H1N1 virus–infected patients. Although most influenza viruses infect trachea and upper respiratory tract cells (5), histopathologic examination of respiratory samples from all 5 patients revealed marked intraalveolar hemorrhage and diffuse alveolar damage (Figure 2, panels A, D), indicating lower respiratory tract disease that clinically manifested as acute respiratory distress syndrome. In 4 patients, neutrophilic alveolar infiltrates consistent with pneumonia were seen (Figure 2, panel B). Changes consistent with the chronic stage of diffuse alveolar damage were noted in 2 patients (Figure 2, panel C). Two others showed necrotizing tracheitis (Figure 2, panel D); swab samples from these tissues were positive for H1N1 virus.

Hemagglutinin of human influenza viruses typically binds to cells bearing sialylglycan receptors configured in an α2-6 orientation. However, some A(H1N1)pdm09 virus isolates also bind to α2-3 sialylglycan receptors (6). In humans, α2-6 sialylglycans are found throughout the respiratory tract, but α2-3-sialylglycans are mainly expressed on lower respiratory tract cells (7). The permissiveness of wild-type MDCK cells and those overexpressing α2-6-sialylglycan receptors (MDCK-SIAT2,6-UF) and α2-3-sialylglycan receptors (MDCK-SIAT2,3-UF) was assessed by monitoring cytopathic effects of virus strains derived from patients (8,9). Cytopathic effects were first apparent and were extensive in MDCK-SIAT2,6-UF cells, followed by MDCK-SIAT2,3-UF, then wild-type MDCK cells. These results suggest that the H1N1 virus isolates in our study use both α2-6- and α2-3-sialylglycan receptors, providing a potential mechanism by which lower respiratory tract disease can occur.

The molecular basis for the ability of the H1N1 viruses to cause severe lower respiratory tract disease was first noted with the 1918 pandemic H1N1 virus (10). A single amino acid change of aspartic acid at position 225 to glycine (D225G) enabled binding to α2-3- and α2-6-sialylglycans (10,11). The association of this polymorphism with severe and lower respiratory tract disease was also noted with the A(H1N1)pdm09 virus from small subsets of patients during the 2009–10 influenza season (1214). To determine if this polymorphism existed in the H1N1 viruses isolated in our study, we sequenced viral RNA corresponding to the coding regions of all 8 influenza virus genomic segments from viruses isolated from or detected in 7 patient samples (GenBank sequences KJ645758–KJ645765 and KJ645774–KJ645791) (8). The consensus sequences were similar to those of key American A(H1N1)pdm09 virus isolates, and like a subset of those isolates, our 7 H1N1 isolates harbored the D225G polymorphism.

None of the 7 isolates harbored the H275Y neuraminidase polymorphism that confers oseltamivir resistance (15), and in vitro test results confirmed oseltamivir susceptibility (data not shown). To determine whether polymorphisms in the 3′ and 5′ untranslated regions were associated with the 2013 H1N1 virus, we sequenced 1 isolate by using rapid amplification of cDNA ends (FirstChoice RLM-RACE; Ambion, Bleiswijk, the Netherlands). No substantial differences were detected between this virus and the original A(H1N1)pdm09 virus or circulating contemporary H1N1 viruses.

Our work was subject to certain limitations. First, the use of ICD-9 codes for diagnostic information is imprecise. To mitigate this, we considered only 2 ICD-9 codes for influenza. Second, it is not known whether our findings extend beyond our region. Last, changes in health-seeking behavior in 2009–10 versus 2013–14 were not addressed.

 

Conclusions

We hypothesize that the emergence of an influenza virus variant bearing the D225G polymorphism enabled the 2013 H1N1 virus to infect lower and upper respiratory tract cells, thereby contributing to the increased severity of the 2013–14 influenza season in our region. Our findings highlight the importance of monitoring genetic changes in the 2013 H1N1 virus to predict the effect of future influenza viruses.

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Dr. Iovine is the hospital epidemiologist at the University of Florida Health in Gainesville, Florida. Her research interests include the epidemiology of novel respiratory viruses and innate defense against multidrug-resistant gram-negative organisms.

 

Acknowledgments

We thank Gregory Gray and Gary Heil for useful discussions regarding this work.

This work was supported by the University of Florida Emerging Pathogens Institute and UF Health.

 

References

  1. Writing Committee of the WHO Consultation on Clinical Aspects of Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Influenza; Bautista E, Chotpitayasunondh T, Gao Z, Harper SA, Shaw M, Clinical aspects of pandemic 2009 influenza A (H1N1) virus infection. N Engl J Med. 2010;362:1708–19. DOIPubMed
  2. Cao B, Li XW, Mao Y, Wang J, Lu HZ, Chen YS, Clinical features of the initial cases of 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus infection in China. N Engl J Med. 2009;361:2507–17. DOIPubMed
  3. US Census Bureau. 2010 Census of population and housing, demographic profile summary file 1. 2010 [cited 2014 Aug 1]. http://www2.census.gov/census_2010/04-Summary_File_1/Florida/fl2010.sf1.zip
  4. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. People at high risk of developing flu-related complications. 2014 [cited 2014 Aug 1]. http://www.cdc.gov/flu/about/disease/high_risk.htm
  5. Taubenberger JK, Morens DM. The pathology of influenza virus infections. Annu Rev Pathol. 2008;3:499–522. DOIPubMed
  6. Childs RA, Palma AS, Wharton S, Matrosovich T, Liu Y, Chai W, Receptor-binding specificity of pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 virus determined by carbohydrate microarray. Nat Biotechnol. 2009;27:797–9. DOIPubMed
  7. Shinya K, Ebina M, Yamada S, Ono M, Kasai N, Kawaoka Y. Avian flu: influenza virus receptors in the human airway. Nature. 2006;440:435–6. DOIPubMed
  8. Lednicky JA, Loeb JC. Detection and isolation of airborne influenza A H3N2 virus using a Sioutas Personal Cascade Impactor Sampler. Influenza Res Treat. 2013;2013:656825. PubMed
  9. Lednicky JA, Wyatt DE. The art of animal cell culture for virus isolation. In: Ceccherini-Nelli L, Matteoli B, editors. Biomedical tissue culture. Zagreb (Croatia): InTech; 2012. p. 151–78.
  10. Glaser L, Stevens J, Zamarin D, Wilson IA, García-Sastre A, Tumpey TM, A single amino acid substitution in 1918 influenza virus hemagglutinin changes receptor binding specificity. J Virol. 2005;79:11533–6. DOIPubMed
  11. Zhang W, Shi Y, Qi J, Gao F, Li Q, Fan Z, Molecular basis of the receptor binding specificity switch of the hemagglutinins from both the 1918 and 2009 pandemic influenza A viruses by a D225G substitution. J Virol. 2013;87:5949–58. DOIPubMed
  12. Chen H, Wen X, To KK, Wang P, Tse H, Chan JF, Quasispecies of the D225G substitution in the hemagglutinin of pandemic influenza A(H1N1) 2009 virus from patients with severe disease in Hong Kong, China. J Infect Dis. 2010;201:1517–21. DOIPubMed
  13. Galiano M, Agapow PM, Thompson C, Platt S, Underwood A, Ellis J, Evolutionary pathways of the pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 in the UK. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e23779. DOIPubMed
  14. Wu C, Cheng X, Wang X, Lv X, Yang F, Liu T, Clinical and molecular characteristics of the 2009 pandemic influenza H1N1 infection with severe or fatal disease from 2009 to 2011 in Shenzhen, China. J Med Virol. 2013;85:405–12. DOIPubMed
  15. Ives JA, Carr JA, Mendel DB, Tai CY, Lambkin R, Kelly L, The H274Y mutation in the influenza A/H1N1 neuraminidase active site following oseltamivir phosphate treatment leave virus severely compromised both in vitro and in vivo. Antiviral Res. 2002;55:307–17. DOIPubMed

 

Figures

Table

Table. Characteristics of 15 patients who died from influenza virus infection, Florida, USA, 2013–14 (http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/21/4/14-1375-t1)

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Suggested citation for this article: Iovine NM, Morris JG Jr, Fredenburg K, Rand K, Alnuaimat H, Lipori G, et al. Increased severity of influenza A(H1N1) virus infection during the 2013–14 influenza season, Florida, USA. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015 Apr [date cited]. http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2104.141375

DOI: 10.3201/eid2104.141375

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#UAE, #Infant’s #death forces #Bahrain #flight to land in Abu Dhabi (GulfNews.com, March 2 2015)

[Source: Gulf News, full page: (LINK).]

Infant’s death forces Bahrain flight to land in Abu Dhabi [   !   ]

By Binsal Abdul Kader (Staff Reporter) - Published: 20:40 March 2, 2015

Abu Dhabi: An 11-month-old Indian child died aboard a flight from India to Bahrain on Monday, according to a relative of the family. When the infant showed physical discomfort, the Gulf Air flight from Kochi to Bahrain made an emergency landing at Abu Dhabi airport Monday morning, but she had already died, the relative, Ratheesh Kumar, told Gulf News.

(…)

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Highly pathogenic #avian #influenza #H5N1, #Nigeria [1 new #poultry #outbreak] (#OIE World Animal Health Information System, March 2 2015)

[Source: OIE, full page: (LINK). Edited.]

Highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1, Nigeria [      ]

Information received on 02/03/2015 from Dr Abdulganiyu Abubakar, Chief Veterinary Officer, Federal Department of Veterinary Services, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, Abuja, Nigeria

  • Summary
  • New outbreaks (1)
    • Outbreak 1  - Ado-Odo farm settlement, Ado-Odo-Ota, OGUN
      • Date of start of the outbreak 14/02/2015
      • Outbreak status Resolved (27/02/2015)
      • Epidemiological unit Farm
      • Affected animals: Species – Susceptible – Cases – Deaths – Destroyed – Slaughtered
        • Birds  - 30046 – 2148 – 2148 – 27898 – 0
        • Affected population A battery cage layer production system
    • Summary of outbreaks
      • Total outbreaks: 1
        • Total animals affected: Species – Susceptible – Cases – Deaths – Destroyed – Slaughtered
          • Birds – 30046 – 2148 – 2148 – 27898 – 0
        • Outbreak statistics: Species - Apparent morbidity rate - Apparent mortality rate - Apparent case fatality rate - Proportion susceptible animals lost*
          • Birds - 7.15% - 7.15% - 100.00% - 100.00%
          • *Removed from the susceptible population through death, destruction and/or slaughter
  • Epidemiology
    • Source of the outbreak(s) or origin of infection
      • Unknown or inconclusive
  • Epidemiological comments
    • Cluster farms in a farm settlement
  • Control measures
    • Measures applied
      • Quarantine
      • Movement control inside the country
      • Disinfection of infected premises/establishment(s)
      • Modified stamping out
      • Vaccination prohibited
      • No treatment of affected animals
    • Measures to be applied
      • No other measures
  • Diagnostic test results
    • Laboratory name and type – Species – Test - Test date – Result
      • National Veterinary Research Institute, Vom (National laboratory) – Birds - real-time reverse transcriptase/polymerase chain reaction (RRT-PCR) - 16/02/2015 – Positive
  • Future Reporting
    • The event is continuing. Weekly follow-up reports will be submitted.

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A #cell-based #screening #system for anti- #influenza A virus agents (Scientific Reports, abstract, edited)

[Source: Scientific Reports, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

A cell-based screening system for anti-influenza A virus agents [   R   ]

Wan Ying Wong,1, Sheng Wei Loh,1, Wei Lun Ng,1, Ming Cheang Tan,1, Kok Siong Yeo,1, Chung Yeng Looi,2, Mohd Jamil Maah3, & Chee-Kwee Ea1

Journal name: Scientific Reports - Volume: 5, Article number: 8672 - DOI: doi:10.1038/srep08672

Received 16 October 2014 - Accepted 28 January 2015  - Published 02 March 2015

 

Abstract

Emerging of drug resistant influenza A virus (IAV) has been a big challenge for anti-IAV therapy. In this study, we describe a relatively easy and safe cell-based screening system for anti-IAV replication inhibitors using a non-replicative strain of IAV. A nickel (II) complex of polyhydroxybenzaldehyde N4-thiosemicarbazone (NiPT5) was recently found to exhibit anti-inflammatory activity in vivo and in vitro. NiPT5 impedes the signaling cascades that lead to the activation of NF-κB in response to different stimuli, such as LPS and TNFα. Using our cell-based screening system, we report that pretreating cells with NiPT5 protects cells from influenza A virus (IAV) and vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) infection. Furthermore, NiPT5 inhibits replication of IAV by inhibiting transcription and translation of vRNAs of IAV. Additionally, NiPT5 reduces IAV-induced type I interferon response and cytokines production. Moreover, NiPT5 prevents activation of NF-κB, and IRF3 in response to IAV infection. These results demonstrate that NiPT5 is a potent antiviral agent that inhibits the early phase of IAV replication.

Subject terms: Drug screening • Microbiology techniques • Influenza virus

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#Influenza Among Afebrile and Vaccinated #Healthcare #Workers (Clin Infect Dis., abstract, edited)

[Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases Journal, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]

Influenza Among Afebrile and Vaccinated Healthcare Workers [      ]

Jessica P. Ridgway 1, Allison H. Bartlett 2, Sylvia Garcia-Houchins 3, Sean Cariño 3, Aurea Enriquez 3, Rachel Marrs 3, Cynthia Perez 3, Mona Shah 3, Caroline Guenette 4, Steve Mosakowski 5, Kathleen G. Beavis 6, and Emily Landon 1

Author Affiliations: 1Department of Medicine, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 2Department of Pediatrics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 3Infection Control Program, University of Chicago Medicine, Chicago, IL 4Occupational Medicine, University of Chicago Medicine, Chicago, IL 5Respiratory Therapy, University of Chicago Medicine, Chicago, IL 6Department of Pathology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL

Corresponding author: Jessica Ridgway, MD, 5841 S Maryland Ave, MC 5065, Chicago, IL 60637, 773-702-9185, Jessica.ridgway@uchospitals.edu

Alternate corresponding author: Emily Landon, MD, 5841 S Maryland Ave, MC 5065, Chicago, IL 60637, 773-702-2710, Emily.landon@uchospitals.edu

 

Abstract

Background.

To prevent transmission of influenza from healthcare workers (HCW) to patients, many hospitals exclude febrile HCWs from working, but allow afebrile HCWs with respiratory symptoms to have contact with patients. During the 2013-2014 influenza season at our hospital, an influenza-positive HCW with respiratory symptoms but no fever was linked to a case of possible healthcare-associated influenza in a patient. Therefore, we implemented a temporary policy of mandatory influenza testing for HCWs with respiratory symptoms.

Methods.

From January 3 through February 28, 2014, we tested HCWs with respiratory symptoms for influenza and other respiratory pathogens by polymerase chain reaction of flocked nasopharyngeal swabs. HCWs also reported symptoms and influenza vaccination status, and underwent temperature measurement. We calculated the proportion of influenza-positive HCWs with fever and prior influenza vaccination.

Results.

243/449 (54%) HCWs had a positive test for any respiratory pathogen; 34 (7.6%) HCWs tested positive for influenza. An additional 7 HCWs were diagnosed with influenza by outside physicians. 21 (51.2%) employees with influenza had fever. Among influenza-positive HCWs, 20 had previously received influenza vaccination, 18 had declined the vaccine, and 3 had unknown vaccination status. There was no significant difference in febrile disease among influenza-positive employees who had received the influenza vaccine and those who had not received the vaccine (45% vs. 61%, p=0.32).

Conclusion.

Nearly half of HCWs with influenza were afebrile prior to their diagnosis. HCWs with respiratory symptoms but no fever may pose a risk of influenza transmission to patients and coworkers.

Received October 2, 2014. Accepted November 22, 2014.

© The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

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#USA: la #bactérie mortelle retrouvée à l'extérieur d'un #laboratoire de haute sécurité (TF1News, March 2 2015)

[Source: TF1, full page: (LINK).]

USA: la bactérie mortelle retrouvée à l'extérieur d'un laboratoire de haute sécurité [      ]

VU SUR... USA TODAY. Les autorités de l'Etat de Louisiane cherchent à savoir comment une bactérie dangereuse et souvent mortelle s'est retrouvée à l'extérieur du laboratoire d'un centre de recherche de haute sécurité.

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#Avigan, la petite #pilule de #Fujifilm porteuse d’espoir pour les malades d’ #Ebola (Mali Actu, March 2 2015)

[Source: Mali Actu, full page: (LINK).]

Avigan, la petite pilule de Fujifilm porteuse d’espoir pour les malades d’Ebola [      ]

Prudence et fierté, ces deux sentiments animent les dirigeants du groupe japonais Fujifilm Holdings, un grand nom de la photo argentique reconverti en improbable créateur d’un des médicaments aujourd’hui perçu comme l’un des plus efficaces contre Ebola. « Les résultats ont dépassé nos attentes », confie Yuzo Toda, un des vice-présidents de Fujifilm lors d’un entretien à […]

(…)

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#Mozambique: #Cholera Death Toll Now Over 40 (AllAfrica News, March 2 2015)

[Source: All Africa News, full page: (LINK).]

Mozambique: Cholera Death Toll Now Over 40 [      ]

[AIM] / Maputo -The cholera outbreaks in central and northern Mozambique, which began in late December, have now claimed 41 lives, according to the deputy national director of public health, Quinhas Fernandes.

(…)

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Highly pathogenic #avian #influenza #H5N1, #Myanmar [3 new #poultry #outbreaks] (#OIE World Animal Health Information System, March 2 2015, edited)

[Source: OIE, full page: (LINK). Edited.]

Highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1, Myanmar [      ]

Information received on 28/02/2015 from Dr Myint Than, Director General, Livestock Breeding and Veterinary, Ministry of Livestock and Fisheries, Nay Pyi Taw, Myanmar

  • Summary
    • Report type Immediate notification
    • Date of start of the event 12/02/2015
    • Date of pre-confirmation of the event 21/02/2015
    • Report date 28/02/2015
    • Date submitted to OIE 28/02/2015
    • Reason for notification Reoccurrence of a listed disease
    • Date of previous occurrence 07/2012
    • Manifestation of disease Clinical disease
    • Causal agent Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus
    • Serotype H5N1
    • Nature of diagnosis Clinical, Laboratory (advanced), Necropsy
    • This event pertains to a defined zone within the country
  • New outbreaks (3)
    • Outbreak 1 (PM/A/2/15/377) - Kyauk Sit Pon, Monywa, Monywa, SAGAING
      • Date of start of the outbreak 12/02/2015
      • Outbreak status Continuing (or date resolved not provided)
      • Epidemiological unit Farm
      • Affected animals: Species – Susceptible – Cases – Deaths – Destroyed – Slaughtered
        • Birds  - 450 – 300 – 300 – 50 – …
        • Affected population Chicken layers 10 months old
    • Outbreak 2 (PM/A/2/15/385) - Kyauk Sit Pon 2, Monywa, Monywa, SAGAING
      • Date of start of the outbreak 16/02/2015
      • Outbreak status Continuing (or date resolved not provided)
      • Epidemiological unit Farm
      • Affected animals: Species – Susceptible – Cases – Deaths – Destroyed – Slaughtered
        • Birds  - 700 – 30 – 30 – 670 – 0
        • Affected population Chicken layers 8 months old
    • Outbreak 3 (PM/Quail/2/15/386) - Kyauk Sit Pon 1, Monywa, Monywa, SAGAING
      • Date of start of the outbreak 16/02/2015
      • Outbreak status Continuing (or date resolved not provided)
      • Epidemiological unit Farm
      • Affected animals: Species – Susceptible – Cases – Deaths – Destroyed – Slaughtered
        • Birds  - 9000 – 20 – 20 – 8980 – 0
        • Affected population Quail layers 6 months old
    • Summary of outbreaks
      • Total outbreaks: 3
        • Total animals affected: Species – Susceptible – Cases – Deaths – Destroyed – Slaughtered
          • Birds – 10150 – 350 – 350 – 9700 – 0
        • Outbreak statistics: Species - Apparent morbidity rate - Apparent mortality rate - Apparent case fatality rate - Proportion susceptible animals lost*
          • Birds - 3.45% - 3.45% - 100.00% – **
          • *Removed from the susceptible population through death, destruction and/or slaughter
          • **Not calculated because of missing information
  • Epidemiology
    • Source of the outbreak(s) or origin of infection
      • Unknown or inconclusive
  • Epidemiological comments
    • Lack of biosecurity within the zone. Epidemiological linkage between the farms.
  • Control measures
    • Measures applied
      • Stamping out
      • Quarantine
      • Movement control inside the country
      • Zoning
      • Disinfection of infected premises/establishment(s)
      • Dipping / Spraying
      • Vaccination prohibited
      • No treatment of affected animals
    • Measures to be applied
      • No other measures
  • Diagnostic test results
    • Laboratory name and type – Species – Test - Test date – Result
      • Mandalay Diagnostic Laboratory (National laboratory) – Birds - real-time PCR - 21/02/2015 – Positive
  • Future Reporting
    • The event is continuing. Weekly follow-up reports will be submitted.

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